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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 17
13 September 2021


Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Exclusive: Fine chemical wastewater treatment technology
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 6-6.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 64 )
Exclusive: Fine chemical wastewater treatment technology

Status quo of industrial waste salt resource utilization and its development trend

WANG Lian, CHEN Lifang, GAO Jingjing, QIU Xin, DAI Jianjun
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 9-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.001
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Abstract ( 65 )
Chemical industry production produces a large amount of waste salt to result in environmental pollution due to lack of proper treatment processes. Landfill is presently the main disposal method of waste salts in China, which is impossible to recycle the waste salt. This paper introduces two approaches to waste salt recycling and treatments in detail, that is, the high temperature pyrolysis+brine purification process and the resin adsorption+advanced oxidation process Several application cases are taken to analyze and find the reason for their low rates of waste salt resource utilization. It turns out that the treatment and reuse of waste salt lack related standards and regulations, on the other hand, economical and practical technology for massive application is still unavailable. Therefore some constructive suggestions are put forward, including the industrial waste salt discharge amount should be reduced to some extent to realize waste salt recycling, new method should be developed, and new laws should be published for utilization of waste salt.

On integrated technology for resource treatment of high salinity high concentration organic wastewater in fine chemical industry

LUO Litao, GAO Yu, ZHANG Hongtao, CHEN Zhaolin, LI Tianzeng, HAN Zhiwei
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 17-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.002
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Abstract ( 51 )
In view of the treatment process of high salt and high concentration organic wastewater, through comparison and selection of various technologies, this article recommends the metal extraction method as the technology to realize metal recovery and resource reuse, the resin adsorption method as the technology to realize organic matter recovery and resource reuse, the advanced oxidation method as the technology to realize organic matter degradation, and the mechanical vapor recompression as the technology to realize salt recovery and separation. Furthermore, a set of technologies for resource treatment of high salt and high concentration organic wastewater is integrated, which takes "metal extraction resin adsorption advanced oxidation mechanical vapor recompression (MVR)" as the main process. This integrated technology is useful for fine chemical enterprises to realize cleaner production and bring considerable economic benefits; it is helpful to realize the high quality and high value recovery of organic matter and inorganic salt, and has very important social benefits; it may improve the wastewater treatment level and resource recycling efficiency of China's fine chemical industry, and produce significant environmental benefits. It can provide important technical guidance for the recycling technology and industrialization of high salt and high concentration organic wastewater in the production process of typical inorganic fine chemicals, and help the green and sustainable development of fine chemical industry.

Status quo of high-salt high-concentration organic wastewater treatment in fine chemical industry and its development trend

YUAN Jing, CHANG Fengmin, JU Xuemin, GAO Hongzhou, DAI Jianjun, ZHANG Qin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 24-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.003
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Abstract ( 56 )
Treatment of high-salt and high-concentration organic wastewater has become a bottleneck restricting green and sustainable development of the fine chemical industry. Aimed at the problems of wastewater treatment, such as large discharge, complex pollutant composition, high salt, high toxicity, poor biodegradability, difficult treatment and high cost, and difficulty in disposing of crystalline waste salt, this paper summarizes the harmless treatment technologies for high-salt and high-concentration organic wastewater, including the harmless treatment technology for organic matter, desalination technology, and related integrated technology, and predicts the development trend of the harmless treatment technology for high-salt and high-concentration organic wastewater in the fine chemical industry.

Exploration and practice of valuable components recovery and water resource utilization technology of high salt organic wastewater

CHEN Huixia, XU Wei, TAO Li, CHEN Fangfang, LIU Fengmei, XU Hongbin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 32-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.004
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Abstract ( 38 )
Aimed at the pollution characteristics of high salinity and high concentration organic wastewater in inorganic fine chemical industry such as complex composition and difficult degradation this study explorates and practises valuable components recovery and water resource reuse technology in the production process of nickel cobalt battery materials in inorganic fine chemical industry. The results show the followings:the oil removal rate from the wastewater can reach 99%; the anhydrous sodium sulfate obtained from resource recovery can meet the class III standard of GB/T 6009-2014 (Na2SO4 content >92%); the TOC content of wastewater after treatment is ≤ 0.05%, and the water reuse rate is more than 85%. When the evaporation residue is mixed with fly ash and other auxiliary materials, ceramsite can be prepared. So all of them can be recycled. The treatment cost per ton of water in the whole process is reduced from 220 yuan to less than 180 yuan, which has significant economic and environmental benefits.

Experimental research on characteristics in evaporation process of organic industrial wastewater with high salinity and concentration

HOU Chao, LIN Xuejun, TAO Lei, YANG Luwei, SUN Guixiang, YANG Rong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 39-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.005
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Abstract ( 47 )
A set of devices for wastewater evaporation have been built and a series of researches on evaporation of distilled ammonia wastewater and pigment production wastewater have been carried out to obtain the characteristics of the evaporation process so as to provide basic data for evaporation system design. The results show that the boiling point elevation of the wastewater increases gradually with the rise of concentration multiple, and that the boiling points of distilled ammonia wastewater and pigment production wastewater from different process stages are slightly different under the same concentration multiple. The COD in the condensate water of pigment production wastewater gradually decreases in the evaporation process. Change rules of TDS and pH in the condensate water of different kinds of wastewater are roughly the same, i.e., to decrease firstly then tend to be constant, mainly being dependent upon the volatile substances and droplet inclusion in the wastewater.

Current situation and development trend of harmless treatment technology for dye wastewater in fine chemical industry

JU Xuemin, LUO Litao, ZHANG Hongtao, HUANG Shoubin, LI Jun, XIANG Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 45-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.006
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Abstract ( 47 )
Treatment of dye wastewater in fine chemical industry has become a bottleneck restricting the sustainable development of this industry. In this paper, aimed at the characteristics of dye wastewater, e.g. complex pollutant composition, plenty of poisonous and harmful ingredients and poor biodegradability, the commonly used harmless treatment technologies are reviewed, including physical treatment methods, chemical treatment methods, biological treatment methods and combination processes of the above. On this basis, the development trend of harmless treatment technology of dye wastewater is predicted to provide technical guidance for treatment of dye wastewater and promote the green and sustainable development of fine chemical industry.

Adsorption property and mechanism of aniline on coal activated carbon

GAO Yu, LUO Litao, CHANG Fengmin, CHEN Zhaolin, YUAN Jing, QIU Huagang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 55-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.007
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Abstract ( 40 )
The study on adsorption performance and mechanism of aniline on coal granular activated carbon is important technical support for removing a large number of aniline pollutants in dye wastewater. Through adsorption experiments of aniline on coal based granular activated carbons with different concentrations, carbon dosages/COD, adsorption times and pH values, and the adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics curves it is shown that the removal rate of aniline and the unit adsorption capacity of aniline are 17.28 mg/g and 98.8%, respectively when the single control variable is carbon dosage/COD of 4.5, under the premise of other conditions being unchanged. When pH value is 5, the aniline removal efficiency is the best. Aniline removal rate and unit adsorption capacity are 16.17 mg/g and 92.47%, respectively. Similarly, when other variables remain unchanged, the higher the concentration, the higher the unit adsorption capacity, but the lower the removal rate; the longer the adsorption time, the higher the adsorption capacity and removal rate. The fitting degree of Langmuir isotherm equation is 0.9929, indicating that a monomolecular layer of aniline is adsorbed on the surface of coal granular activated carbon. The Freundlich characteristic constant 1/n is 0.3363, indicating that this adsorption process is easy to occur. In addition, the adsorption process is more in line with the quasi-second-order kinetics, and the adsorption rate is controlled by internal diffusion and internal surface adsorption process. This study provides reference for improving operating efficiency and reducing treatment cost of activated carbon adsorption process.

Present situation and development trend of pesticide wastewater resource treatment technology

LUO Litao, CHEN Shan, ZHANG Demeng, ZHANG Hongtao, HUANG Shoubin, NIU Zhenhua
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 63-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.008
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Abstract ( 49 )
Sources, output and water quality characteristics of pesticide wastewater in China are summarized. Through the investigation and analysis of the recycling treatment technology of pesticide wastewater, it is clear that the current recycling treatment technology of pesticide wastewater is facing some difficult problems, such as lack of standard support and policy guidance, lack of effective targeted treatment technology, low utilization rate of resources, high cost of treatment, immature technology and equipment, and shortage of resource integration technology with a wide range of application. By further analyzing the effect of various integrated treatment technologies on pesticide wastewater treatment, it is determined that integrated treatment technology can not only improve the efficiency of pesticide wastewater resource treatment but also make up for the defects of single method, thus enhancing the feasibility and reducing the cost. Integrated technology has become the research trend of pesticide wastewater resource treatment.
Review

Research progress on novel variable stiffness technologies for soft robot

LIU Chen, WU Yehui, LI Bo, DONG Xufeng, CHEN Hualing, CHEN Guimin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 69-81. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.009
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Abstract ( 102 )
Soft robot is a new kind of robot with various freedom of movement and good environmental adaptability. However, low stiffness of the soft robot limits its practical carrying capacity. Therefore, it is meaningful to develop variable stiffness technology for soft robot. This paper summarizes the new variable stiffness technology in recent 5 years, introduces and analyzes its working principles including electrostatic adsorption principle, layer interference principle, self-locking origami mechanism, electrical/magnetorheological principle and minimum potential energy principle, variable stiffness performance and practical application. This paper also discusses the challenges for the current variable stiffness technology and the future development direction, and summarizes the potential research value of the new generation of variable stiffness technology.
Papers

Research on R&D technical route of combined cycle engine

ZHAO Wensheng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 82-90. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.010
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Abstract ( 110 )
With the combined cycle powered vehicle for high-speed aircraft and two-stage orbit platform as the background, and oriented to the basic elements of development research and engineering application, this paper investigates the R&D technical route of the horizontal takeoff and landing combined cycle engine. The main functional indicators such as flight range and load capacity of the single-type powered aircraft and the combined cycle powered vehicle are compared, the engine performance requirements for combined cycle powered vehicle are analyzed, the shifting trend with the widening of the speed range on aerodynamic and structural quality characteristics of the combined cycle powered vehicle and the performance of combined cycle engine are studied. It is proposed that the upper limit of the flight speed domain has a decisive influence on the practical application of the combined cycle engine. An evaluation model on combined cycle engine technology is constructed in the dimensions of technical solution, aircraft requirements, technology generational progress, and thermal barriers. Evaluation shows that the Ma6 combined cycle engine still needs continuous exploratory research, and the Ma4 combined cycle engine can be developed in big R&D projects for practical application. The analysis believes that the Ma4 sub-hyper flight platform has great value and is a majior technological generation.

Research on improving thermal conductivity of transformer anti-corrosive coating

MO Juan, XU Jin, FAN Baozhen, LIU Rui
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 91-98. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.011
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Abstract ( 59 )
This study aims to develop a new type of environmentally friendly high thermal conductivity anti-corrosive coating for transformers. Graphene, carbon nanotube, carbon nano-horn and ultrafine graphite powder mixture are used to modify the thermal conductivity of the coating on the transformer surface. The thermal conductivity and microstructure of traditional solvent-based coatings, water-based epoxy zinc-rich coatings, and modified high thermal conductivity coatings are analyzed. Results show that the modified high thermal conductivity coating has the smallest thermal resistance (2.51℃/W) and the highest thermal conductivity (1.3460 W/(m·K)), indicating that its thermal conductivity is significantly better than those of the other two traditional coatings. This enhancement is mainly related to the optimization of the type of thermal conductivity and the improvement of coating density. After adding high thermal conductivity filler to the waterborne epoxy zinc-rich coating, a ballistic-diffusion scheme of heat transfer is formed. On the other hand, the added high thermal conductivity material fills the pores and cracks in the coating, which greatly improves the density of the coating and builds a heat transfer channel between transformer metal and external environment. The transformer temperature rise simulation experiment shows that the high thermal conductivity coating can reduce the top layer temperature rise of transformer oil by 1.67 K.

Patent statistics analysis since the foundation of China

GAO Jiping
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 99-105. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.012
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Abstract ( 64 )
This paper takes the grant patents, an indicator integrating quantity and quality, and adopts time series analysis to restore the patent development road since the foundation of P.R. China. The technology patents have grown out of nothing. Before 1949, there was neither relevant patent law nor regulation, and it was not until 1984 that the patent law of the People's Republic of China was officially introduced, indicating that China's patent system was initially formed. However, the number of grant patents in China at that year was 0, and until 1985 China had published 54 grant patents. It took 35 years for China to develop its patent system from scratch. Then China's technology patents developed from slow to fast. From 1985 to 2000, it took 16 years for China's annual grant patent number to exceed 10,000. Only ten years later in 2009 more than 100,000 patents were granted. Moreover, in 2012 the number of grant patents exceeded 200,000. With the number of China's annual grant patents exceeding 400,000, China is now on the road toward a country of strong intellectual property rights. Since the foundation of P.R. China, technology patents have also gone from weak to strong. During the 20 years from 1989 to 2008, the proportion of patents belonging to Chines mainland was continuously lower than 50%, and the strength of its technology dominance was also continuously lower than 1. Even from 1999 to 2003, the strength of its technology dominance was only 0.51. However, since 2009, the proportion of patents belonging to Chines mainland has steadily grown, rising to 75.48% from 2014 to 2018, while its technological dominance strength increasing to 3.08.

Research and practice on comprehensive quality evaluation of academic conferences

TANG Jiahui, LI Xiaoxuan, ZHENG Yi, ZHAI Shenghui
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 106-114. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.013
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Abstract ( 80 )
Academic conferences play a very important role in the construction of national innovation system, development of disciplines and growth of scientific researchers. In recent years, the overall scale of China's academic conference activities has increased rapidly but problems such as uneven quality and lack of standards have become increasingly obvious. Therefore, conference organizers, managers and participants urgently need an evaluation means to judge the quality of academic conferences. In view of the problems of the traditional academic conference quality evaluation methods, such as lack of prominent academic elements and narrow application fields, this study proposes a quality evaluation framework which comprehensively uses the evaluation information sources including participants' qualitative feedback, quantitative characteristics data of the conference, and social influence big data analysis, and conducts a comprehensive quality evaluation covering more than 700 academic conferences held in China in 2018. The results indicate that the scale of academic conferences in China is increasing continuously, that the quality control of content is stricter and the effect of interactive communication is more prominent, and that the types of outcome and dissemination methods are further enriched. However, there are significant differences in quality among academic conferences of different disciplines and scales. And there are obvious differences in the perception of conference quality among participants of different titles and nationalities. According to the evaluation results, this paper proposes three ways to improve the quality of China's academic conferences, that is, considering the demands of participants, optimizing conference organization, and improving the mechanism of the academic society.
Science and Technology Humanities

The asks of great scientists about innovations

HOU Yude
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (17): 115-120. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.17.014
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Abstract ( 85 )
In China, there have been a number of outstanding scientists who not only made scientific success but also had deep sense of social responsibility in such as the development of science, technology and education for the country and the nation. Beyond their professional researches, between science and society, they also left much rich intellectual heritage. From the perspective of "the asks of great scientists", the paper combs the thoughts and explorations on scientific and technological innovation of several famous scientists (Peng Huanwu, Yang Zhenning, Zhou Guangzhao, Hao Bailin, Tsung-Dao Lee and Feng Duan).

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