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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 19
13 October 2021

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Suggestions
Exclusive: Climate change
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 37 )

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 6-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 7-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 26 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 54 )
Suggestions

Nuclear data: A bridge connecting the fundamental nuclear physics research and engineering application

GE Zhigang, CHEN Yongjing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 9-17. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.001
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Abstract ( 75 )
Nuclear data, especially neutron nuclear data, is the basic data for fundamental research of nuclear physics, utilization of nuclear energy, and development of nuclear technology. It is also an important bridge to connect nuclear physics fundamental research and nuclear technology application. The quality of nuclear data will directly impact on the effectiveness, safety and economy of nuclear devices. This paper briefly introduces the application of nuclear data, the trend of nuclear data research in the world, and reviews the experience of international nuclear data work as well as its enlightenment to nuclear data work in China. Finally, opportunities and challenges brought by machine learning and other new technologies to the development of nuclear data in China are introduced, and some proposals on how to develop the nuclear data work in China are presented.
Exclusive: Climate change

Evidences of human influence on global warming

ZHAO Zongci, LUO Yong, HUANG Jianbin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 18-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.002
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Abstract ( 63 )
This paper is a summary and review of studies on attribution of global warming, an issue getting more and more attention from policy makers and public. After a brief introduction to the global warming research in terms of methods and tools of attribution analysis, this paper summarizes the achievements of scientific research on evidences of human influence on global warming in recent years. Using the global climate models with human influence and using fingerprint detection and attribution, it is found that human influence was virtually certain to be the main cause of global warming in the past century, especially the last 50 years. The evidences of global warming in five spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere and cryosphere) of the earth system, such as increased heat waves, weakened cold wave, lower atmosphere warming, land and ocean warming, global sea level rising caused by both thermostatic expansion of sea water and ice melting, the accelerated melting of ice, snow and permafrost, the increased acidity of ocean, and extended plant growth season, are all closely related to the human influence.

Understanding the 2020 Lancet countdown: Human health and climate change report

LIU Zhao, CAI Wenjia, LUO Yong, GONG Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 24-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.003
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Abstract ( 51 )
Climate change has posed a serious threat to human health. If greenhouse gas emissions and global temperatures are allowed to deteriorate, climate change can become one of the major threats to global health in this century. To cope with the crisis, University College London and Tsinghua University established "Lancet Countdown:Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change" project jointly with more than 30 top academic institutions globally in 2016 and cooperated together to write the "Lancet Countdown:Health and Climate Change" reports, to track the impact of climate change on population health and the health benefits of tackling climate change and carry out public propagandization and policy recommendation. The latest 2020 global report, which tracked annual changes in 43 indicators across five areas, found that indicators of climate change impact, exposure and vulnerability were all deteriorating while efforts to mitigate climate change were clearly inadequate, and that it would be difficult to meet the temperature rise target set in the Paris Agreement according to current trends. The report drew three key conclusions:1) no country-whether rich or poor-is immune from the health impacts of climate change; 2) the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change represent converging crises which need to be tackled in unison. 3) A joint response to converging crises can deliver a triple win:better public health, a sustainable economy and environmental protection.

A review of climate change and population migration in the foreign countries

BU Chaoqun, LI Xiaocen
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 32-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.004
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Abstract ( 52 )
Population migration caused by climate change has become one of the hot issues in the international community. This paper reviews the researches on climate change and population migration in western academic circles since the end of the 20th century. It is found that population migration is not only a response mechanism to climate change but also a complex result of a series of national background, social, political and economic environment collisions. Aiming at the problem of climate change, this paper puts forward that all countries should strengthen collection and sharing of reliable data on climate-related migration, and focus on improving resettlement and livelihood of migrants in their destinations when formulating policies related to migration. This paper introduces the current international research trends of climate change and population migration and looks forward to future research prospects to effectively solve the problem of climate migration and resolve the social risks faced by climate migrants.

Policy suggestions for China's nuclear power development towards the carbon-neutral target

ZHOU Li, YAO Zilin, BU Weidong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 43-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.005
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Abstract ( 59 )
China has put forward a positive vision to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. Nuclear power is expected to be further developed as a non-fossil energy source. Although the national nuclear power technology made great progress in 13th Five-Year Plan period, there are many uncertainties and challenges for its development in the future, including dispute on scale of nuclear power site resources, nuclear power role in the future energy structure, new demand on near-zero emission energy systems, impact of electric power system reform on economic benefits, public concern & local pressure and so on. Therefore, the paper suggests that nuclear power development should be defined more clearly, that utilization paths should be enriched, and that the affect of carbon reduction should be highlighted. At the same time, it is necessary to improve supporting policies and mechanisms and strengthen public publicity to minimize obstacles in the development of nuclear energy.

Challenges and opportunities of metallic mineral industry under the vision of carbon neutrality

MA Jingyu, CHENG Dongbo
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 48-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.006
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Abstract ( 62 )
The vision of carbon neutrality has become a consensus of international political bodies and economies. As one of the most important industries that have the responsibility to reach Chinese national goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, the metallic mineral industry is facing not only challenges but also opportunities. This article analyzes a series of challenges and opportunities from several aspects. It is believed that the production costs will increase in the process towards carbon neutrality and the industry has to overcome difficulties such as immature low-carbon technology and complex carbon emission mechanism. On the other hand, with the low-carbon economy developing, the metallic mineral industry will also embrace substantial opportunities:large-scale production will be promoted, demands for metals and minerals will grow, price of the product will be kept in a high level, more approaches will be available to obtain capital, and so on. Thus, carbon assets are expected to become a new growing point for metallic mineral enterprises. It is suggested that the metallic mineral enterprises should strengthen carbon emission control by using information technologies, and support R&D of low-carbon, zero-carbon and negative carbon technologies. At last, the metallic mineral industry and enterprises should build circular economy industrial chain to strengthen the circle and integration inside and outside the industrial chain.
Reviews

Hot topics review of brain-computer interface in 2019-2020

CHEN Xiaogang, YANG Chen, CHEN Jingjing, GAO Xiaorong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 56-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.007
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Abstract ( 70 )
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is designed to provide rich and powerful command signals for assistive devices by decoding user's intention directly from brain signals in a real-time way. Recently, both theoretic and practical aspects of BCI technology have rapidly developed and become increasingly mature. More application scenarios of BCI technology have been demonstrated as well. This review summarizes the important achievements and events in hardware, algorithm, paradigm, and application in the BCI field in 2019-2020 and discusses its development trend.

Development situation and trend of solar energy technology industry in China

LU Shaoyan, WU Dan, MA Laibo, GAO Chunjuan, WANG Liang, ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Qi
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 66-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.008
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Abstract ( 74 )
China's solar energy utilization industry has developed into a considerable-scaled industry, and the industry has to face fierce market competition and structural adjustment. In order to promote the healthy development of domestic solar energy industry, based on an analysis of China's solar energy resources and industrial characteristics, this paper analyzes the key technologies, core equipment and market situation of solar thermal and technologies of photovoltaic power generation, respectively. Moreover, it points out that the integration of solar energy buildings and multi-energy complementation will be the future trend of solar energy utilization technology, which lays an important foundation for the development of multi-level and diversified solar energy utilization in China.

Research progress and trend of big-data based biometrics

LIU Qi, YU Hanchao, CAI Jiancheng, HAN Hu
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 74-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.009
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Abstract ( 52 )
Biometric recognition refers to the use of inherent physiological or behavioral characteristics of human body for personal identification, such as face recognition, fingerprint recognition, and iris recognition. Early technologies are usually based on handcrafted features and traditional machine learning methods, and constrained by data and computing power acquisition ability. Thus, they are generally limited to controlled environment and difficult to build powerful biometric recognition models by making use of large-scale biometric data effectively. In recent years, with the advancement of machine learning, especially deep learning and increasing computing power of GPU, big data based biometric recognition technologies have received widespread attention and have been widely used in the areas such as personal authentication, intelligent video surveillance, and prevention and control of epidemic. This paper summarizes the development of big-data based biometrics technologies, covering different types of biometrics and their applications, and then discusses the trend of big-data based biometrics technologies in the future.
Papers

Risk assessment study for driverless special vehicles in airport flight area

LIU Bingfei, TANG Xiaopeng, ZHANG Feng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 83-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.010
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Abstract ( 74 )
With rapid development of driverless technology, driverless special vehicles into airport flight zone will become a future airport development trend. At present, there is no reasonable evaluation system for the operation risk assessment of driverless special vehicles in the airfield. Based on the study of risk factors of driverless special vehicles in the airfield, this paper establishes a risk assessment model of driverless special vehicles in the airfield from the perspectives of internal and external factors. The trigonometric function and trapezoidal function are combined to determine the improved whiteness weight function, which is then applied to the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-grey theory comprehensive evaluation method so as to judge the weight and evaluate the risk factors comprehensively. Finally, an comprehensive risk assessment is carried out by taking the driverless luggage trailer as an example and the preventive measures are proposed against larger risk factors.

Ensuring coal transportation: The development of Datong-Qinhuangdao heavy haul railway (1985-1998)

Wang Bin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 92-97. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.011
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Abstract ( 51 )
Datong-Qinhuangdao railway is the first double-line electrified and heavy haul unit modern railway in China. It is also a national key construction project to enhance Shanxi coal transportation capacity. Officially started in 1985, the first-stage project was completed in 1988, second-stage project completed in 1992, and third-stage auxiliary project completed in 1998. The project introduced and developed a series of advanced technologies and equipment, adhered to the principle of "self-reliance first, international cooperation second", and finally realized localization of production. The successes in research, development, introduction and digestion of complete equipment for heavy haul train of Datong-Qinhuangdao railway improved the technical equipment level and the ability of developing and supporting manufacturing equipment of China's railway. The development of heavy haul transportation capacity of Datong-Qinhuangdao Railway marks that the technical level of China's railway heavy haul transportation has entered the world's advanced rank.

Development of crowdsourcing science popularization: Realistic conditions, constraints and promotion policies

WANG Ming, ZHENG Nian
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 98-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.012
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Abstract ( 55 )
Crowdsourcing science popularization is the application of crowdsourcing to science popularization activities. Under the background of promoting informationization construction of science popularization, crowdsourcing in science popularization is encouraged by the national science popularization policy, and enjoys good social and technical development conditions. Due to the constraints of insufficient participation awareness of the public, limited resources for participation, and lack of mature operation mechanism, promoting crowdsourcing in science popularization requires not only supportive policies but also non-profit projects for public services imposed by the government so as to enhance the development of various commercial crowdsourcing projects.
Science and Technology Humanities

Theoretics are keys to the science

WANG Naixing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (19): 104-108. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.19.013
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Abstract ( 70 )
Theoretical thinking is the key question for science development. Compass and gunpowder belong to the four great inventions of ancient China, but from Tang dynasty to Qing dynasty, no any theoretical questions on compass and gunpowder were ever studied. This article lists a few incisive theoretical examples in modern chemistry to illustrate the very importance of theoretical questions. Perceptual knowledge needs to rise to rational knowledge that must be completely consistent with experimental facts. Any correct theory should grasp the essence of things. From philosophical opinion, practice is the first; however, theoretics have important instructive effects on new and follow-up practices. Therefore, the tree of rational theory is ever green.

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