28 October 2021, Volume 39 Issue 20

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  • WANG Taoqin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 9-18. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.001
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    At present, the main factors affecting the international collaborative innovation include the challenge of China's high-level scientific and technological self-reliance, the significant differences in the international values, the convergence of the international technical standards, the trend of anti-globalization, the "Belt and Road" initiative along the national industrial transformation and the upgrading difficulties. With the concept of the global scientific and technological governance, we should promote the free and effective allocation of scientific and technological innovation elements in the international arena, realize the high level self-reliance of science and technology in China and build a new order of division of labor in the world industry as the goal, inherit and carry forward the traditional spirit of mutual benefit and win-win situation of the Silk Road, grasp the longterm equilibrium trend of scientific and technological elements, grasp the industrial gradient transfer, and strive to stimulate internal and external innovation driving force as the key to achieve mutual benefit and win-win situation, in order to strengthen the cross-cultural communication capacity to ensure the recognition of national values along the route, to successfully put the technology as a fundamental enhancement of the regional synergy capacity. To develop export-oriented entities as the carrier to inject sustainable development momentum.
  • LIN Kunyong
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 19-32. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.002
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    After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed the strategy of building a maritime power, it is an important task of the new era to accelerate the building of a maritime power. The innovation and the development of the marine science and technology are an important strategic measure to accelerate the construction of a maritime power. Based on the review of the history and the major events of China's Marine Science and technology innovation and development since the founding of the People's Republic of China, this paper analyzes the experience and the existing problems of China's Marine Science and technology innovation and development, and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions for further development of the marine science and technology innovation and the innovation driven development. After 70 years of China's rapid development of marine science and technology, the level of the continuous improvement has become an important driving force to guide and promote the construction of a maritime power. In the new era, the development of China's marine science and technology should remain in the core of innovation, and focus on three aspects:The construction of a talent team; strengthening the top-level design; and the leading role of the government.
  • SHAO Haibing, KONG Yanlong, SHEN Baixin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 33-44. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.003
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    Since the implementation of the "Resource Tax Law of the People's Republic of China" on September 1, 2020, a significant response is seen from the Chinese geothermal industry. Through the study of the law and the corresponding local implementation guidelines, it is found that there exist several conflicts between the current local implementation guidelines and the upper law. More specifically, when the resource tax is imposed on the amount of the reinjected geothermal water, such taxation practice will violate the upper law, against the third article of the principle of the tax on the amount of sales, as well as against the fifth article of the principle of the exemption on the self-usage for continuous production. These conflicts will very likely lead to judicial litigations and law suits in the future. With respect to the concept of"raw geothermal water"in the Resource Tax Law, and whether the reinjected geothermal water can be treated as a behavior of sales, the current legal definition is not clear enough. Moreover, the method of adopting the volume unit of the cubic meter as the taxation unit of the geothermal water will cause uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the measurement of taxable products in the geothermal electricity generation industry. In terms of policy recommendations, this paper proposes that the resource tax should be exempted on the reinjected geothermal water under the existing legal framework. At the same time, the definition of"raw geothermal water"needs to be clarified through judicial interpretation, and a revision process should be initiated to change the taxation unit of geothermal water to the mass unit of ton.
  • Exclusive: Alzheimer's disease
  • HUANG Zonghui, ZHOU Rongbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 45-55. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.004
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    With the induction under the stress conditions such as the brain injury and the infection, the microglia in the central nervous system will rapidly be activated to promote the neuroinflammation. Extensive chronic neuroinflammation can be found in neurodegenerative diseases, and the abnormal folding protein deposited in the brain of patients is usually the key cause of inflammation. In addition, the neuroinflammation may also directly participate in the induction of the disease. This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the activation of inflammation in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cutting-edge studies of how the inflammation induces the disease initiation and aggravates the disease process. It is suggested that the next key research goal is to find the drugs that target the key sites of the microglia activation with a good blood-brain barrier permeability.
  • SUN Binggui
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 56-68. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.005
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    The extracellular deposition of the amyloid β (Aβ) and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmarks of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of the Aβ and the tau (the major components of the NFTs) in the brain induces the aberrant activity of neurons and the structural/functional deficits of neural circuits, which may account for the cognitive impairments in the AD patients. This paper briefly reviews the generation of the Aβ and the tau, and then focuses on the abnormal activities of neurons and neural circuits induced by the Aβ and the tau. Meanwhile, the effects of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE), the neuroinflammation and the abnormal adult neurogenesis on the aberrant activities of neurons and neural circuits in the AD patients are discussed. It is hoped that these discussions will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunctions in the AD patients.
  • LI Lijuan, XIAO Xuansheng, ZHENG Yan
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 69-79. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.006
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    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly found in elderly people, which imposes a massive burden on both the families and the society. It is not only one of the most serious health issue facing the mankind, but also a major social problem restricting the sustainable development of the social economy in the 21st century. Unfortunately, there is no reliable method to treat or even to delay the process due to the unknown pathogenesis of the AD. Therefore, to precisely elucidate the mechanisms of the AD and thereby to find a way of treating the disease is a hot topic in the AD research field. This paper reviews representative studies of the AD mechanisms related to the cholinergic system, the Aβ cascade hypothesis, the immune inflammation, the excitatory toxicity and the glucolipid metabolism, as well as recent studies by using novel techniques including the optogenetics, the cryo-electron microscopy imaging, the photo- and magnetic stimulation, and the ultrasonic drug delivery. It is suggested that we should pay attention to other interdisciplinary fields, such as the advanced imaging/detection technology, the accurate diagnosis and prevention, and the wearable physical therapy instrument.
  • ZHANG Dengfeng, XU Min, YAO Yonggang
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 80-91. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.007
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    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of dementia and the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In view of its high heritability, the genetic and genomic study plays essential roles in the basic researches and the clinical practice of the AD. This paper reviews the research advances regarding the genetic analyses of the AD, from the linkage analyses and the genome-wide association studies, to the next-generation sequencing studies, including also the functional variations, the causal genes, the multi-omic alterations, and the biological mechanisms underlying the AD genetics from the perspective of the functional genomics. It is expected that the genomic and functional genomic studies will contribute to the understanding and the management of the disease.
  • BI Danlei, SHEN Yong
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 92-100. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.008
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    The Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the major cause of dementia in senior people. The late-onset AD (LOAD) accounts for more than 95% of the total AD population. Apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4) is the most prevalent risk gene in the LOAD. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which ApoE4 contributes to the alterations of the energy and the lipid metabolism. Alterations of metabolism, including the energy and the lipid, are frequently observed in the brains of individuals with a mild cognitive impairment and the AD. Therefore, ApoE4 induces the LOAD pathogenesis probably by impairing the metabolic homoestasis based on the clinical and basic researches. This could potentially provide new therapeutical targets in the drug development for the AD.
  • YAO Xufeng, YUAN Zengbei, BU Xixi
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 101-109. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.009
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    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is usually insidious in its onset and there are no drugs or methods to effectively control and treat the disease. Early prediction and intervention during the stage of the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can effectively delay the course of the disease. The review contains two aspects. One is the early clinical diagnosis of the AD based on the brain imaging radiomics features, another is the AD early prediction based on the artificial intelligence (AI) of the imaging radiomics. We propose that in the framework of the deep learning, the imaging and the genomics are combined to construct a deep learning model with a high classification and prediction performance, to provide support for early screening and intervention of the AD.
  • ZHANG Yaru, YU Jintai
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 110-115. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.010
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    Recently, our paper entitled "evidense-based prevention of Alzheimer's disease" published in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (JNNP) has attached much attention. In this review, we will discuss the contents of this paper including the prevention strategies, the population difference, the current status and the future prospect of the AD, to guide the clinical practice of the AD primary prevention, such as the healthy lifestyles (the weight control, the physical exercise, the cognitive activity, sufficient and good quality sleep, and staying away from smoking), and the management of comorbidities (the diabetes, the high blood pressure, the hyperhomocysteinaemia, the cardiovascular disorders, the head trauma, and the depression), and it is shown that the high education and the vitamin C intake can reduce the incidence risk of the Alzheimer's disease (AD).
  • Reviews
  • WAN Mimi, CHEN Tiantian, MAO Chun, SHEN Jian
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 116-125. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.011
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    Micro/nanomotor drug delivery technology is a new drug delivery mode in vivo based on the self-motion of the drug carrier, which can promote the effective enrichment, retention and penetration of the therapeutic drugs in the lesion site in a nondestructive mode. Its high performance encourages the scientific community to make more effort to accelerate the development of micro/nanomotor in the biomedical field, to find a new way to solve some important traditional biomedical problems at the micro/nano-level, and to establish new principles of the disease treatment and the possible application models. This paper reviews the research progress of micro/nanomotor drug delivery technology, including the drug delivery mode, the drug loading mode, the targeting ability of the micro/nanomotor drug delivery system, the drug delivery movement of micro/nanomotor in the physiological environment, the promotion effect of the autonomous movement of micro/nanomotor in improving the cell uptake and the tissue permeability, and the drug delivery mechanism of micro/nanomotor. Finally, the future development trend of this field is prospected.
  • LI Liangmin, CHEN Hongbing
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 126-132. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.012
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    For decades, the methods and the techniques of measuring the creativity have been continuously improved. The psychometric methods in the creativity research can be grouped into four types:The creative processes, the personality and behavioral correlations of the creativity, the characteristics of the creative products, and the attributes of the creativity-fostering environment. After a brief overview in this line, this paper systematically analyzes the representative measurement tools and the common defects of existing measurement methods. It is concluded that the creative process tends to be systematic, the creative person tends to be specific, the creative products tend to be de-evaluator and the creative environments tend to be ecological. As the creavitity is a compound concept, these four dimensions cannot be treated separately. As a result of the methodology, the measurement of the creativity should be a compound one, therefore, the test methods should be multidimensional.
  • Papers
  • FANG Chao, BAN Yanjun
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 133-141. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.013
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    It is a determined measure to promote the innovation strategy of science and technology and cope with the current development challenges to construct a reasonable development plan and an efficient operative mechanism of the national innovation system of systems centering on national laboratories. This paper focuses on the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) of the US. With this case analysis, the development path and the management model of the VNL are studied. Moreover, the development and the application of high-tech projects, the characteristics of the collaborative innovation operative mechanism are reviewed, including an organic combination of the government coordination and the market operation, the extensive participation of various powers, the effective protection for the intellectual property of innovation achievements, and the efficient information communication mechanism. Finally, related suggestions are proposed, as well as the enlightenments of the VNL and the existing management problems of Chinese major scientific research institutions. Firstly, the innovation mechanism for compound scientific research projects should be explored, which combines the government coordination and the market demands. Secondly, the administration should give full play to the cohesive function of national laboratories to enhance the basic scientific research leveraging industry power. Thirdly, the agile response mechanism of scientific research requirements should be constructed quickly for interdisciplinary and comprehensive projects with multiple stake-owners.
  • Science and Technology Humanities
  • CHEN Biao, FU Xiaohang, ZHU Yuewei, DI Yumeng, WU Youjin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(20): 142-148. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.20.014
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    Emmanuelle Marie Charpentier and Jennifer Anne Doudna were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, the "gene scissors", was jointly developed by the two female scientists. Due to its low cost and high ease, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology greatly promotes the development of the life sciences. The huge commercial value of this technology is also recognized by the society. This paper reviews the scientific researches of the two scientists, as well as the impact and the enlightenment of their results.