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   Science & Technology Review
2022, Vol.40, No. 10
28 May 2022

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Special to S&T Review
Suggestions
Exclusive:Exercise for Brain Health
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Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 118 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 125 )
Special to S&T Review

Dream theory for Metaverse applications: Principles, methods and implications

YANG Xuan, ZHOU Chao, ZHANG Shu, SHU Yezhi, LIU Xinge, WANG Xiaoan, LIU Yongjin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 6-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.001
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Abstract ( 112 )
The metaverse is a digital virtual world generated by the computer, as a hot-spot in the fields of the education, the culture, the technology and the entertainment in recent years. The dream world is a virtual reality world generated by the brain, and is comparable with the metaverse. Different psychological hypotheses were proposed to explain why the brain could construct the immersive, realistic virtual world in dreams. From the functions of the dreams many new ideas of potential applications could be gained for the metaverse. This paper reviews the theoretical hypotheses about the dreams, which could find applications in the metaverse, and to enrich the real and dream world in the entertainment and the social interaction, the skill learning, the counseling and the evaluation, and the trauma therapy. Finally, despite the promising future of the metaverse, there are still important challenges in the development of the metaverse.
Suggestions

Studies of marine data sharing policies and standards and the enlightenment

SUN Miao, JIANG Xiaoyi, WANG Zike
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 22-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.002
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Abstract ( 71 )
As a new strategic asset, the marine data-sharing could not sufficiently support the development of the sea-power strategy due to the shortcomings in the top-level design and the technical standards. With the developing status of the main marine countries in mind, this paper analyzes the marine data sharing laws and regulations, policies, standards, as well as the development models of different marine data sharing, the current marine data sharing pattern of the world, and our country's problems. Some suggestions are made for the marine data open sharing.
Exclusive:Exercise for Brain Health

The effects of exercise on human empathy: Research progress, prospect and cognitive neural mechanism

MAN Xiaoxia, LIN Xuan, WEI Gaoxia, LI Youfa
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 30-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.003
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Abstract ( 102 )
The empathy is the ability to perceive and understand other people's emotions and intentions and to respond accordingly, and it is of great significance for human beings to establish and maintain social relations. A large number of studies have shown that the exercise can promote the empathy. Specifically, it is known that, from the exercise interest and the exercise mode, one can positively predict the empathy, while the relationship between the exercise experience, the exercise volume, and the empathy is not clear; The exercise promotes the empathy through two possible cognitive neural mechanisms:The exercise promotes the emotional empathy by activating the mirror nervous system, and the exercise promotes the cognitive empathy by promoting the cognitive control system. However, this hypothesis still lacks adequate evidences. Generally, more evidences are needed to solve the following problems:Current research results are not comparable due to their different and insufficient research designs; Most of the studies focused on the healthy people while ignoring the clinical people who need to improve their empathy; In the most researches of the cognitive neural mechanism, only one technology instead of the multimodal imaging technology is used, with the limitations in the data repeatability. It is suggested that future researches should:1) further refine the experimental design, clarify the dose-effects of the exercise interest, the exercise experience, and the exercise volume on different components of the empathy; 2) pay attention to the development of the exercise prescriptions for people with empathy defects such as the autism and Alzheimer's disease; 3) promote interdisciplinary integration and technological innovation, and deepen the research of the cognitive neural mechanism of the impact of the exercise on the empathy.

Exercise promotes brain health: Evidence from behavioral and brain sciences

JIN Xinhong, DING Yuxiang, ZHOU Chenglin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 39-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.004
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Abstract ( 81 )
This paper reviews the possible neural mechanisms of the physical activity in promoting the brain health, including the molecular, cellular, and organ-level mechanisms (the brain structure and functions). According to the empirical researches, the behavioral and brain science evidences show that the exercise does promote the brain development in children and adolescents and delay the cognitive decline in the elderly. It is suggested that the attention should be paid to the multidisciplinary intersection to explore the causal relationship of the potential mechanisms how the exercise promotes the brain health, to build a multimodal predictive model, and to develop personalized optimal exercise intervention programs for different populations based on the key mechanisms. In the future, large-sample longitudinal studies can be carried out to provide a scientific basis and a practical guidance for the exercise intervention as an auxiliary means for the clinical treatment of related diseases.

Exercise intervention of brain aging: New progress and revisit

LI Xue, SUN Junzhi, JIN Yu, WANG Lu
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 49-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.005
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Abstract ( 91 )
The aging and the chronic diseases caused by the aging are an urgent social problem in facing the ever increased aging population. This paper reviews the complex biological mechanisms of the brain aging:the glial cell activation and the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress damage, the stem cell depletion, the DNA repair damage, the mitochondrial dysfunction and other related issues. The emerging methods in the field of the exercise and the brain health in recent years include the research and applications of the epigenetics, the exosomes, the intestinal flora, the exercise factors, the allogeneic symbiosis, and the omics analysis. In the meantime, it is suggested that the aging is not a disease, and it is proposed to pay attention to the problem of the exercise pills and the feasibility of the transformation from basic to clinical of the exercise intervention of the brain aging. In the future, it would be a challenging task for scientists and exercise professionals to explore and develop precise exercise prescriptions for delaying the brain aging.

Research progress of the relationship between sedentary behavior and executive function of school-age children

CUI Jie, LI Lin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 60-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.006
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Abstract ( 82 )
The prevalence of the sedentary behavior and its adverse effects on children's and adolescents' health have become a global public health issue, while the relationships between the sedentary behavior and the executive function of children and adolescents remain unclear. This paper focuses on the school-age children who are at a critical stage in their cognitive health and academic development, from the dimensions of the sedentary time and content, as well as existing studies of the relationship between the total sedentary time and the executive function, the relationships between the specific sedentary behavior and the executive function, and the relationships between the sedentary behavior and the brain structure and functions for the school-age children, and it is suggested that the relationship between the sedentary behavior and the executive function of the school-age children may vary depending on the details of the sedentary behavior or the kinds of the executive functions, and the screenbased entertainment sedentary behavior may be negatively associated with the executive function of the school-age children.

Physical exercise and autism rehabilitation: Evidence from the perspective of brain and mind

CAI Kelong, CHEN Aiguo, ZHU Lina, LIU Zhimei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 67-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.007
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Abstract ( 93 )
In recent years, the relations between the physical exercise and the rehabilitation of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a hot topic on the research frontier. However, most of the existing studies analyzed the effects of the physical exercise on the autism only from a single behavioral perspective, without an adequate consideration of the multi-level evidence and the integration of them, leaving the relationship between them unclear. This paper explores the effects of the physical exercise on the autism from the perspective of "Brain" and "Mind", and it is found that the physical exercise improves the "mind"of the autism patients mainly in five aspects:the motor disorder, the executive function, the academic achievement, the emotional behavior and the core symptoms; and the physical exercise improves the"brain"of the autism patients mainly in three areas:the molecular, the cellular and the systemic levels of the brain. A multi-level, multi-disciplinary and relatively complete chain of evidences for the relationship between the physical exercise and the autism is thus integrated. Finally, in view of the existing research trends and the practical needs, three main directions for the future research are pointed out:1) build a theoretical system of improving "brain and mind" of the autism patients through the physical exercise; 2) construct a physical exercise intervention model for the synergistic improvement of "brain and mind" of the autism patients; and 3) further promote the interdisciplinary research.

Cognitive neural mechanism of food decision-making and exercise interventions for obese individuals

HUANG Jiaai, CAI Yuwei, HUANG Huang, HE Zhaorui, XU Xia
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 78-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.008
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Abstract ( 72 )
The interaction between the exercise and the eating behavior is a hot research topic in the weight control of the obese individuals. This paper reviews the representative theories and studies of the food decision-making neural mechanisms, as well as the recent studies and theories of the interaction between the exercise and the food decision-making. Based on the above theories and research results, we propose a cognitive neural framework of improving the food decision-making by exercise for the obese individuals. This paper also reviews the representative studies, focusing on the effects of different doses of exercise interventions on the food decision-making for the obese individuals and provides a theoretical and practical reference for the weight control.

The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in exercise-cognitive neuroscience

XIANG Mingqiang, HUANG Wenqin, LI Wenjing, LIU Shufang, LIAO Bagen
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 89-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.009
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Abstract ( 68 )
The exercise-cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that explores the exercise improvement of the cognitive performance and the brain functions by using the cognitive neuroscience research methods. Recently, the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) becomes a hot technique used in the exercise-cognitive neuroscience. It is shown that:The prefrontal activation level of the elderly is higher during the single-task walking than that of the young, and the activation level is lower during the dual-task walking; the moderate intensity acute aerobic exercise is the best way to improve the cognitive level and to increase the brain activation, while the exercise under the hypoxia would damage the cognitive function; the longterm aerobic exercise or the high-intensity interval exercise can improve the cognitive performance and the brain activation level, but for the elderly, the long-term exercise may reduce the brain activation level. The future studies should exclude the influence of the systemic physiological factors in the exercise situations on the cerebral cortical activation, strengthen the randomized controlled experiments of the effects of the long-term exercise on the cognitive function brain mechanisms, use the multimodal brain imaging methods to systematically investigate the exercise-cognitive neural mechanisms, and explore the exercise prescription in the field of the exercise-cognition.

The action imitation ability of children of autism: From perspectives based on behavioral and brain sciences

GAO Yuanyuan, CHEN Aiguo, WEI Gaoxia
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 97-109. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.010
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Abstract ( 110 )
This paper reviewed the findings of action imitation defects in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from both behavioral and neural perspectives. It summarized the existing literature about behavioral performance and brain mechanism related to imitation defects; Evaluation tools and treatment strategies for imitation defects were also included in this review. This review is of great implication for advance the understanding of action imitation defects in ASD and provides an insight for screening and treating imitation defects.

Scientific basis and practical applications of mind-body exercise based on Chinese traditional culture to promote brain health

HU Zhuoer, GE Likun, SHEN Haoran, HE Yaping, WEI Gaoxia
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 110-118. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.011
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Abstract ( 83 )
The mind-body exercise based on Chinese traditional culture is a kind of physical activity that combines the martial arts with the mental training, based on the Chinese traditional thought and theoretical doctrine. It mainly emphasizes the movement and the mind-body integration, encourages the individuals to relax, and promotes a physical, mental and brain health. This paper explores the roles of the common traditional mind-body exercise (Tai Chi Chuan, Qigong, and others) in improving the physical, mental and brain health, reviews the scientific evidences in the changes of the structural morphology and the functional activity of the brain induced by the mind-body exercise, and expands the applications of the mind-body exercise in the clinical and daily life. The present study aims to understand the relationship between the mind-body interaction from the perspective of the traditional culture and the modern technology, and provides some scientific evidences with the mind-body exercise as preventive measures or treatments for clinical disorders.

The music-motor intervention methods for speech perception and motor timing disorder of stuttering patients

DENG Wei, WANG Xiaolu, SHEN Meiyu, WENG Shenhong, QI Changzhu
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 119-128. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.012
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Abstract ( 79 )
According to the characteristics of the speech perception and the motor timing disorder of stuttering patients, a music- motor intervention program is designed and applied to the clinical practice, based on the analysis of the treatment mechanism of four key elements of stuttering. It is found that the music-motor intervention for the speech perception and the motor timing disorders of stuttering patients is effective, as a clinical treatment. The intervention goal can be achieved by improving the rhythm, the breathing, the time and the emotion of stuttering patients, in which the rhythm is the core and the emotion is the driving force. The phonetic music intervention has the unique advantage in the treatment of stuttering. The musicmotor intervention method proposed in this paper provides a reference for the development of the clinical treatment plan for music therapists.
Reviews

Scenario analysis of transformation and upgrading of process manufacturing industry based on industrial Internet platform

FU Yuhan, MA Dongyan, TANG Yinong, WANG Dan, LI Liwei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 129-136. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.013
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Abstract ( 91 )
The process industry is an important part of China's industry. The industrial production has the characteristics of the strong production process continuity, the complex process in manufacturing, execution and decision, few production units but a large number of variable factors and so on. There are problems in China's process industry, such as the imperfect data collection application system, the lagging behind of the high-end product development and the process level, the insufficient monitoring coverage in the energy consumption and the safety, and the low coordination level of the industry chain. This paper analyzes the typical scenes and cases of the applications of the industrial Internet platform in the key process manufacturing industries, such as the metallurgy and the petrochemical and building materials, and it is shown that the process manufacturing enterprises can effectively open the "black box" of the production with the comprehensive data collection and the free flow with construction and application of the industrial Internet platform to efficiently connect the manufacturing and market resources between the enterprises, which improves the overall value co-creation level of the industry chain. In addition, the application of the industrial Internet platform provides new tools and engines for the process industry to build a new system of the intensive and efficient production.
Papers

The effects of damage on mechanical behavior of jet engine variable geometry chevron

DU Chunzhi, DONG Shaozhe, PANG Shuai, LIU Bingfei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 137-143. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.014
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Abstract ( 131 )
The variable geometry chevron(VGC) is a sawtooth aerodynamic device composed of an annularly distributed single chevron at the tail of the engine, and is used to reduce the engine noise. The VGC is deformed repeatedly during takeoff and landing of the aircraft, which would cause the structural fatigue of the VGC. Based on the existing constitutive model of the Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) and the fatigue test of the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics(CFRP), a damage factor is introduced in a finite element subroutine to analyze the mechanical properties of the VGC when the SMA and the CFRP are damaged in a certain degree. It is shown that the damage of the VGC is mainly caused by the SMA. As the number of the deformation cycles increases, the maximum Mises stress in the VGC gradually decreases and the maximum displacement gradually increases. Compared with the simulation of a single chevron, the maximum Mises stress of the VGC with the same damage degree is larger, and the maximum displacement of the VGC is smaller than the tip deflection of the single chevron. The research results can provide a guidance for the safe operation of the VGC.
Science and Technology Humanities

A historical reflection on the globalization process of natural science research in modern China

GE Yejing, XU Fei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (10): 144-152. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.10.015
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Abstract ( 129 )
The first half of the 20th century is the pioneering period for the globalization of the Chinese natural science research. Based on a review of Chinese papers in the Science Citation Index during this period, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the globalization process with a historical reflections from an empirical perspective. It is shown that the scientists, the funds and the facilities are important factors for the scientific activities; the Matthew effect for the scientific institutions and the disciplines is remarkable; with the dominant idea of putting the emphasis on the technology rather than the science, the research hotspots are on the medicine, the biology, and the chemistry; the science center moves from Beijing to Yunnan in the turbulent times, which indicates that the talents are the most essential for the science, followed by other resources and conditions; and a high level of the international scientific cooperation in the initial stage is indispensable for the global scientific research. The unique history of the initial stage of the Chinese natural science research provides an important enlightenment for the progress of the science and the technology and the social development today.

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