13 July 2022, Volume 40 Issue 13

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    Special to S&T Review
  • GAO Deli, ZHANG Guangrui, WANG Yanbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 6-16. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.001
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Key demand and risk analysis of deepwater oil and gas engineering technology and equipment in the South China Sea can help construct our country's deepwater oil and gas engineering independent innovation system. Through reviewing the current status of deepwater oil and gas engineering technology and equipment, this paper divides the technologies into four major fields: exploration, modes, drilling and completion, and production and transportation, and presents a four-level hierarchical evaluation model for deepwater oil and gas engineering. By means of Delphi expert investigation method and the weight factor judgment method. the technologies and equipment are quantitatively analyzed and their importances are ranked, and a risk analysis of the key equipment system is given. The results show that deepwater oil and gas exploration technology, advanced well type technology for efficient oil and gas development, semi-submersible drilling platform/drillship structure design and manufacturing technology, and so on are relatively important, and that the complex composition of deepwater oil and gas engineering equipment system and the harsh operating environment may lead to the high risk of drilling mud circulation system, riser system, subsea wellhead and X-tree system, etc. So it is necessary to control and reduce the probability of equipment failure through optimized design to ensure a safe and efficient development of deepwater oil and gas.
  • Suggestions
  • GUO Jianan
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 17-26. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.002
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    In the era of uncertainty, the global risk accumulation and linkage in various fields seriously threaten the survival of mankind. In the reflection on the generation of global crises and the dilemma of governance, and by analyzing the role of government and society in the process of scientific development, it is believed that the crisis of public trust in scientists in the era of globalization and post industrialization has intensified the impact and interference of non-scientific factors on the social public sector and political decision-making, reduced the ability of science to predict the complex consequences of these crises, and challenged the original contractual relationship with uncertainty. Therefore, on the one hand, efforts should be made to rebuild the trust of ordinary people and political decision makers in science, so as to strengthen the support of scientific research for policy-making. On the other hand, the positive role of science in national prosperity and social progress also depends on a sound science education mechanism and the orderly interactions between science and politics.
  • Exclusive: Intelligent Manufacture
  • WANG Zhigang, WANG Wenshi, ZHANG Liye, XI Zheng, AN Di, YIN Hao, WANG Wen, YAN Jia
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 27-35. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.003
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    Scientific drilling is an effective way for human beings to explore the interior of the earth, it is also an important means to solve major problems such as resources, disasters and the environment. Scientific drilling projects in the United States, the former Soviet Union, Germany, Japan, Iceland, China and other countries are summarized. The problems in drilling and completion of 10000-meter scientific ultra-deep wells are discussed, including complex geological conditions, high formation temperature, long drilling cycle, difficult well deviation control, etc.. Future applications of geology-engineering integration technology, high-efficiency rock breaking technology, high-temperature drilling fluid technology, and many others in the drilling and completion of 10000 meter scientific ultra deep wells are also prospected.
  • CUI Zhengjie, LIU Houcai, KANG Huimin, ZUO Guocai, HU Shengqiao, LIU Zhicheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 36-49. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.004
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    This paper reviews the research progress of model-based industrial robot error parameter calibration technology to improve the end-effector control accuracy, and summarizes the key problems when industrial robot is applied to high-precision machining and manufacturing, such as incomplete error parameters, high calibration cost and calibration accuracy. Moreover, the paper analyzes the modeling method of error parameter calibration model, end-effector's pose measurement technology, error parameter identification technology and error compensation technology. And the main difficulties of model-based error parameter model calibration technology in dealing with complex calibration tasks are discussed Finally, aimed at some existing problems, a method to efficiently obtain and process the measured error data is proposed and a feasible development direction is also prospected.
  • HAO Zhuang, LIU Shaoqin, PAN Yunlu
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 50-56. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.005
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    Single strand DNA probe-graphene field effect transistor (ssDNA-GFET) nano-biosensor holds great potential in wearable or implantable clinic applications. This paper reviews the development status of ssDNA-GFET, methods on optimizing biomarker sensing performance, detection of biomarkers in human biofluids, and the development status of flexible ssDNA-GFET toward wearable or implantable clinic applications. In the end, the paper demonstrates current limitations of the sensor that hampers its real clinic applications.
  • MA Lifang, WANG Lichao, LI Jian, TAO CHunjing, ZHANG Ming, FAN Yubo
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 57-64. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.006
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    Compared with the traditional manufacturing methods of orthopedic insoles, 3D printing orthopedic insoles are intensive and efficient. However, there are still some problems in design, printing, materials and so on, and there is a lack of systematic research review. Based on the manufacturing methods of orthopedic insoles, this paper summarizes the printing technology, printing materials and research status of 3D printing orthopedic insoles, and analyzes the existing problems in the research of 3D printing orthopedic insoles. The future development trend of 3D printing orthopedic insoles is forecasted in terms of the improvement of orthopedic insoles performance and the development of modern science and technology.
  • LI Huadong, LIU Xiwen
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 65-74. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.007
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    To compare the colliders between China and Japan from the perspectives of historical development and running performance and to learn the development experience of Japan and provide references for future technological layout, especially for large research infrastructure planning, this study discovers that the parameters of Chinese collider, which was constructed earlier, are limited by funding, technology, and other factors. Its research field is charm physics, whose energy range is lower than that of B physics. Whereas Japan, which has a foundation in engineering technology, targets at the B physics with richer physics prospects. Both colliders have obtained significant scientific achievements. Japan is more prominent in the research output and the degree of international cooperation is higher. The output of Chinese collider has increased significantly in recent years, and China keeps leading in the research of charm physics.
  • Reviews
  • DANG Anrong, TIAN Ying, LI Juan, WU Guanqiu
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 75-85. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.008
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    Based on recent academic literature, policy documents, norms and standards, and practical cases, the paper systematically sorts out the concept and content evolution of smart territorial planning and management, as well as its overall framework, data system and technical method progress. Meanwhile, the relevant policy guidance and standardization status and the progress of the three-level practice exploration results, i.e., the ministry, province, and city, are also analyzed to clarify the development process and existence of China's smart territorial planning and management in terms of multi-data fusion, technology integration, platform development, application exploration, and standard support. Moreover, five perspectives of China's smart territorial planning and management are presented, including optimizing and improving the planning and management information platform, exploring and practicing the transformation of territorial planning from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, real-time perception of dynamic changes of territorial planning and management demands, deepening and perfecting institutional mechanisms and standards, and integrating the use of cloud-edge-terminal and blockchain technology so as to truly realize the goal of smart territorial planning and management.
  • HUANG Yaoqing, WANG Chunli, LI Ziyan, MAO Yanyan, LIU Lili
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 86-95. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.
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    With the rapid development of the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and cancer biology, genomic biomarker-based personalized anti-cancer medicines have become an important direction of drug discovery. In this review, we first briefly introduce the excellent therapeutic effects of personalized anti-tumor medicines on non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma and leukemia. Next, we comprehensively explore current tumor agnostic anticancer medicines and highlight that therapeutic medicines based on biomarkers rather than tumor tissue will become one of the directions of antitumor drug discovery. Finally, after introducing the novel clinical trial design and the new technology of PROTACs, we argue that the emergence of new ideas and new technologies will promote the development of antitumor precision medicines and help solve the problem of drug-resistance and "undruggable" targets.
  • Papers
  • WANG Chengxin, YANG Xiaodan, SHI Yicheng, MAO Jiahua, ZHAO Luqiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 96-106. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.010
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    In order to evaluate the impacts of assimilation of GPS (global position system)-PWV (precipitable water vapor) on the initial field and simulation of different precipitation types in Sichuan Basin, several control tests and assimilation experiments were performed using GSI (gridpoint statistical interpolation) and WRF (weather research and forecasting) model. Two cases, namely CR_2013 and SR_2015, representing the processes of convective precipitation and stable precipitation, respectively were analyzed. The results showed that a great amount of water vapor had accumulated in Sichuan Basin before the occurrence of rain, with the amount in the east being more than that in the west. The rainstorm centers of the two cases were located at the southern and northern gradient zones of GPS water vapor, respectively. The assimilation of GPS-PWV not only improved the humidity field but also ameliorated temperature and wind field to some extent. Although the locations and intensities of simulated precipitation in the control tests were generally similar to the observed precipitation, there was stronger simulated precipitation in small areas. The assimilation of GPS-PWV significantly improved the simulation of precipitation. The range of simulated rainstorm centers of CR_2013 was closer to the observation, while the simulation of SR_2015 significantly weakened the intensity and range of the fake rainstorm centers. The most significant adjustment was located at the gradient zones of GPS water vapor, which was consistent with the observed rainstorm center. The assimilation of GPS-PWV continuously influenced the simulated accumulated precipitation, and the adjustment range of convective precipitation was higher than that of stable precipitation.
  • QI Ruifang, LI Na, LV Jun, SHI Ruili, MA Baohui, SHI Jinghua, HAO Xiaoqiong, SHAO Guo
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 107-113. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.011
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    The purpose of this study is to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) on mouse hippocampus. ICR mice were divided into the control group, hypoxia group and HPC group. Western Blot was used to detect the protein expression of TSC1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR and LC3 to ascertain whether TSC1/mTOR/autophagy pathway was involved in the neuroprotective effect of HPC on mice hippocampus. In order to further study the role of TSC1 in hypoxia, TSC1 pEGFP was transfected into HT22 cells in vitro. After hypoxia stimulation, the viability of cells was detected by MTS assay to determine the neuroprotective effect of TSC1 under hypoxia. Results showed that HPC increased the hypoxia tolerance time of mice, the expression of TSC1 protein increased and the expression of P-mTOR protein decreased in HPC group compared with those in the control group, and that the cell viability of TSC1-peGFP plasmid group was increased compared with that in the vector group. The results suggested that HPC played the neuroprotective role in the hippocampus of mice by activating autophagy through up-regulating the expression of TSC1 while down-regulating mTOR phosphorylation level.
  • Science and Technology Humanities
  • CHEN Biao, MENG Liuwen, FU Xiaohang, CHEN Yu, ZHU Zijun, ZHU Yuewei, ZOU Yuqi, WU Youjin
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(13): 114-120. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.13.012
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    The ability to perceive heat, cold and touch is the key to human adaptation to the environment. David Julius and Alden Pataptian won the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of the TRPV1, TRPM8 ion-protein channels and PIEZO genes, unveiling the ‘mystery’ of human temperature and touch receptors. By reviewing the growth experiences, scientific research activities and research results of the two scientists in the field of human perception, the advantages and disadvantages of "pain" to the human body are discussed, and the relationship between the application of new scientific instruments and basic scientific research is investigated.