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   Science & Technology Review
2023, Vol.41, No. 4
28 February 2023

Science and Technology Humanities
Special to S&T Review
Exclusive:Protection of rare and endangered germplasm resources of industrial crops
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Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 121 )

Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 175 )
Special to S&T Review

Current status and future prospects of the national major infrastructure for science and technology

WANG Yifang
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 5-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.001
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Abstract ( 189 )
Major infrastructure for science and technology is an important constituent of national infrastructure, a significant strength  symbol  of  the  national  science,  technology,  economy,  and  even  the  soft  power.  The  construction  of  China's  major infrastructure for science and technology started in 1960s and experienced germination, growth, development, and  rapid development  stages.  Some  facilities  have  reached  the  world's  leading  level,  generating  a  number  of  internationally  renowned achievements in science and technology, which substantially supported national strategic needs and sustained the development of science and technology. However, there are  still gaps and  shortcomings in  construction  of national major infrastructure  for science and technology, such as the lack of world-leading, original or even unique facilities, the need to strengthen the institutionalize  research  at  facilities  and  to  improve  the  international  cooperation.  China's  science  and  technology  development needs to resolve the above issues, to strengthen the top-level design and optimize the management, to initiate large international science projects so as to make greater contributions to the economic and social development, the construction of a world-leading country on science and technology with a high level of self-reliance and self-strengthening.
Exclusive:Protection of rare and endangered germplasm resources of industrial crops

Current situation and protection strategy of rare and endangered germplasm resources of main economic crops

WANG Haiping, SONG Jiangping, ZHANG Xiaohui, YANG Wenlong, JIA Huixia, WANG Yang
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 14-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.002
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Abstract ( 102 )
Economic crop plays an important role in the national economy and rural revitalization. Vegetables, fruit trees, tea trees, tropical crops, sugar and flowers are important economic crops. Due to human interference, climate change, population structure and the instability of ecological communities, the wild endangered resources are rapidly reduced, and some important rare resources are on the verge of extinction. However, the rare and endangered resources of economic crops such as vegetables are faced with bottleneck problems such as lack of collection and protection technology and imperfect protection system. It is urgent to carry out research and development of relevant technologies for rescue and protection. This paper mainly introduces the rare and endangered resources of the main economic crops including vegetables, fruit trees, tea, flowers and tropical crops about their protection, monitoring and utilization status, besides we also analyze their main endangerment mechanisms, put forward the protection strategies of the rare and endangered germplasm resources of the main economic crops.

Current status of wild tree peony germplasm resources and suggestions for their conservation

WANG Shunli, LU Ruiwen, REN Xiuxia, XUE Jingqi, WANG Fang, ZHANG Xiuxin
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 23-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.003
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Abstract ( 122 )
Tree peonies are deciduous subshrubs in the Paeonia section of Moutan from the Paeoniaceae and include nine wildspecies and one cultivated specie with more than one thousand cultivars. All of tree peony wild species are native to China, andthey are the important parental resources for excellent variety breeding of tree peony. In view of severely damaged and endangered status of wild tree peony species, based on the reference of literatures, investigation of their original habitat,telephone consulting, and team research findings about wild tree peony species, we summarized the classification, current distribution regions and numbers of wild species, and its application in genetic breeding of tree peony. In addition, we reviewedthe contribution of wild species on phylogenetic evolution of tree peony, and the development of their oil and edible value.Finally, according to the current status of collection and conservation of wild species and research progress of wild species in ourteam, we summarized the conservation strategies of wild tree peony species and it provides reference for conserving wild treepeony species in the future.

Current achievements and protection suggestions of wild germplasm resources of chrysanthemum

Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 31-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.004
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Abstract ( 94 )
This paper reviewed the distribution patterns, diversity hotspots, research status and protection of rare species related to chrysanthemum. The survival and protection status of Chrysanthemum, Ajania and other rare or endemic Asteraceae species in China was reported. Then, the research progress and proposed protection levels of a number of rare germplasm resources were put forward, mainly including C. rhombifolium, C. zhuozishanense, A. sericea, Opisthopappus taihangensis, Formania mekongensis, Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis. In addition, we systematically expounded the research progress of rare species protection from two aspects: habitats investigation and endangered mechanism research. Finally, from the perspectives of advanced monitoring technology system excavation and interdisciplinary analysis, the research methods and future prospects for the protection of chrysanthemum related wild germplasm resources were suggested.

Advances of sugarcane germplasm resources

HUANG Yuxin, ZHANG Baoqing, ZHOU Shan, GAO Yijing, YANG Cuifang, ZHANG Gemin, LU Shanyu, DUAN Weixing
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 43-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.005
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Abstract ( 174 )
Sugarcane is an important sugar crop with important economic value. The complexity of genetic background, theunclear origin and evolution and the lag of genomics research make it impossible to optimize the selection of parental materialsin sugarcane breeding, seriously restricting the development of sugarcane industry. In this paper, we reviews the research progress of the origin, systematic classification and evolution of sugarcane germplasm resources, the current situation ofconservation at home and abroad, as well as genomics in analyzing the genetic relationship and evolutionary history of sugar can especies and genera. The results will provide important references for the conservation, genetic diversity evaluation and industrial application & development of sugarcane germplasm resources.

Collection, conservation and utilization of lychee(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)resources

ZHANG Lei,XU Li,LI Huanling,HONG Jiwang,YANG Ziqin,LI Songgang,WANG Jiabao
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 50-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.006
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Abstract ( 116 )
The situation of lychee(Litchi chinensis Sonn.) germplasm resources abroad and the investigation, collection and preservation of lychee germplasms in China were introduced in this paper. The phenotypic evaluation, genetic diversity research and the construction of core collection of lychee germplasms in recent years were summarized, and some points for improving lychee germplasm research were recommended.

Research and conservation status of the rare and endangered germplasm of Camellia tachangensis in Guizhou

BAI Dingchen, HE Limin, LI Caiyun, NIU Suzhen
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 58-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.007
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Abstract ( 79 )
Endangered plants are an important part of the biosphere, a precious resource of the country, and an extremely important material for scientific research. In this paper, C. tachangensis, an endangered resource, was studied and its protection status was analyzed. The results showed that C. tachangensis in Guizhou was mainly distributed in 12 counties, and its morphological characteristics were significantly different from those of cultivated tea plants. The content of soluble pectin in C. tachangensis was higher than that of cultivars, and the content of catechin component was also different from that of cultivars, indicating that C. tachangensis germplasm has the potential of new variety breeding. The ECG content of C. tachangensis was significantly positively correlated with DFR gene, and five transcription factors of DFR gene were excavated. The AtMPK4 gene of 8 insect resistance factors associated SNPs and 6 negative regulators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in C. tachangensis were detected. These results suggested that C. tachangensis has great protection value and development potential.

Advance in the research of grape leaf chlorosis

WANG Shaozu, ZHANG Ying, FAN Xiucai, SUN Lei, JIANG Jianfu, LIU chonghuai
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 65-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.008
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Abstract ( 111 )
With the continuous expansion of grape planting area, the leaf chlorosis of grape often occurs in China and other grape producing areas in the world, which seriously affects the yield and quality of grape fruits and seriously restricts the development of grape industry. The occurrence of this phenomenon is often affected by many factors. In this paper, the causes of chlorosis are mainly divided into two categories: pathological chlorosis and physiological chlorosis. The pathological chlorosis is mainly induced by phytoplasma and virus disease. The physiological chlorosis is mainly induced by salt stress and alkali stress. The chlorosis of leaves caused by salt stress was mainly due to the reduction of chlorophyll synthesis by the toxic effect of single salts, while the chlorosis caused by alkaline stress was mainly due to the blockage of iron transport in the plant caused by the accumulation of NO3- and HCO3- induced by alkaline soil conditions. In addition, this paper also summarizes the influence of the grape leaf chlorosis on plants, the prevention and correction techniques, the physiological mechanism of grape resistance to iron deficiency and the screening of varieties resistant to iron deficiency, and briefly summarizes the shortcomings of the current research on the grape leaf chlorosis, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the further research on the grape leaf chlorosis and the prevention and correction of chlorosis in grape production.

Effects of adding rotted wheat straw to composite substrate on the growth of cucumber seedlings

WU Yahong, ZHOU Yanwei, JIN Qing, DUAN Famin, KANG Xinna
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 73-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.009
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Abstract ( 86 )
In order to study the effect of the composite substrate added with decomposed wheat straw on cucumber seedling cultivation, six kinds of substrate were obtained by compounding decomposed wheat straw, coconut bran and vermiculite in different proportions, with coconut bran∶vermiculite = 5∶5 (volume ratio) as the control and Jinzao 198 cucumber as the test material. By analyzing the phenotypic traits, biomass accumulation and physiological indexes of seedlings, and using principal component analysis for comprehensive evaluation, a suitable compound substrate formula was screened out. The results showed that: adding decomposed wheat straw was beneficial to the growth of cucumber seedlings, and low addition amount was better than medium and high addition amount. The seedling emergence rate of cucumber seedlings treated with T6(decomposed wheat straw∶ coconut bran∶ vermiculite = 1∶3∶5)was the highest, reaching 98.67%, which was 4.77% higher than that of the CK; the phenotypic traits such as stem diameter, hypocotyl length and maximum root length were the best; the biomass accumulation was the highest, and the seedling strength index was the highest, reached 0.15 and were 50% higher than control; Chlorophyll value, root activity, leaf soluble protein, and soluble sugar content were significantly higher than those of the CK,It increased by 6.68%, 41.70%, 6.69% and 15.38% respectively, and the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and nitrate reductase were significantly better than those of other treatments. The comprehensive ranking of different evaluation indicators for each treatment is: T6>T5>T3>T4>T2>T1>CK. In conclusion, T6 (decomposed wheat straw∶coconut bran∶vermiculite=1∶3∶5) treatment significantly promoted the growth of cucumber seedlings, and could be used as the best substrate formula for cucumber plug seedlings. This paper provides a theoretical reference for the use of rotted wheat straw in vegetable seedlings, thereby reducing the cost of factory seedlings and improving the quality of seedlings.

Experimental analysis on influencing factors of aircraft fuel tank inerting characteristics

SUN Yigang, GUAN Xin, LIU Bingfei
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 83-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.010
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Abstract ( 86 )
The fire or explosion of the aircraft fuel system is one of the main causes of aircraft crash. It is necessary to carry out theoretical and experimental researches on the fire and explosion protection capabilities of aircraft fuel tanks. The fuel inerting system has been developed in recent years. In the use of civil aircraft fuel tank inerting system, whether the optimal inerting efficiency can be achieved is one of the hot issues widely concerned. In order to study the influence of different factors on the inerting characteristics of the fuel tank, a set of aircraft fuel inerting test device was designed and developed firstly to simulate the washing inerting process of the aircraft fuel tank, and then the influence of different inlet flow, concentration and inlet position on the inerting characteristics of the aircraft fuel tank inerting system was explored. The research can provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the further development and application of domestic civil aircraft fuel inerting devices.

Port shoreline suitability evaluation under the constraints of sea area use management policy: A case study of the Pearl River Estuary and Dapeng Peninsula

CHEN Lei, LI Feng, LIN Jingrou, GAO Yang, ZHANG Xiaohao
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 97-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.011
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Abstract ( 86 )
Port construction is one of the important ways to develop and utilize marine resources. The suitability analysis of port construction requires the comprehensive consideration of the social and economic development, the national sea use and control policies, the natural resource conditions and other factors. Based on the analysis of relevant researches, technical guidelines and influencing factors of port construction, this paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation method of port shoreline construction suitability for qualitative judgment and quantitative analysis, which combines the direct judgment method with a correction model restricted by multi-factor-weighted development potential and ecology. The method is applied in the Pearl River Estuary and Dapeng Peninsula. The evaluation results show that the suitable, relatively suitable and generally suitable coastlines account for 29.77%, 18.98% and 1.55% of the coastline length of the region respectively, while the unsuitable coastline is 49.70%. The evaluation results meet the actual situation and the requirements of sea use management and control policies, which can provide support for port function zoning in marine territorial planning. The evaluation method can also provide reference for the suitability evaluation of other types of sea use.

Research on the evolution model of disruptive technological innovation from the perspective of technology source and initial target market

LIU Liu,WU Xinnian
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 104-113. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.012
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Abstract ( 124 )
The process of disruptive technological innovation is accompanied by the evolution of technology and the expansion of market. At present, the academic discussion on the evolution mode of disruptive technological innovation is mainly based on the perspectives of technology, market, institutional mechanism and innovation ecosystem, and lacks in-depth analysis on the source of technology. Due to the diversity of the sources of disruptive technology and the differences of the initial target markets, disruptive technologies do not follow the unified evolutionary path. Based on the source of technological innovation, disruptive technologies can be divided into three types: innovative breakthrough type, integrated reorganization type, and cross-border application type. Through different combinations of the three types of disruptive technologies and the initial target markets, a variety of disruptive technologies evolution models are summarized, providing a new theoretical perspective for the classification and identification of disruptive technologies, as well as the cultivation and development of disruptive technologies.
Science and Technology Humanities

Study on Bingzhi’s scientific institution thought and its practice in the institutionalization of modern biology in China

SUN Wei, SHI Yumin
Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41 (4): 114-120. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.04.013
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Abstract ( 169 )
Based on literature analysis, history-logic-united dialectical method, and oral history method, this paper comprehensively analyzes the connotation of Bingzhi's scientific institution thought from four aspects: the significance of scientific institution, the system norms of science practice subjects, the effective operation of the organizational systems, and the external conditions for the function of scientific institution. Then it summarizes Bingzhi's practice and exploration in the institutionalization of modern biology in China by establishing educational institutions, research institutions, academic groups, and academic journals, and draws the conclusion of Bingzhi's spirit of looking to the world, taking root in China, thinking deeply and being brave in the practice of the institutionalization of modern biology in China. The realistic significance of this spirit for future scientific institutionalization in China was prospected.

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