13 November 2023, Volume 41 Issue 21

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    Special to S&T Review
  • ZHOU Biyun, DING Li, ZHANG Jing, LI Tanqiu, XI Linbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 6-13. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.001
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    This paper retrospects the high-altitude full pressure suit in early technical validation, describes the development and evolution characteristics of the high-altitude flight full pressure suit, and summarizes the structure realization forms. Besides, the critical technical problems, i.e., low-pressure protection, thermal protection and operational ergonomics in the design process of the high-altitude full-pressure suit, are analyzed. Finally, the development of full pressure suit is prospected. It is considered that the manufacturing technique, advanced materials and new suits structure should be further studied in the future, and a standardized, lightweight, flexible and comfortable high-altitude full pressure suit should be designed.
  • Suggestions
  • WANG Qiong, WU Yegang, REN Mingxun, LI B Larry
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 14-20. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.002
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    China is vigorously building a system of nature reserves with national parks as the main body. However, the protection of national parks and national nature reserves is contrary to international practices. This paper compares and analyzes the differences between China and the United States in terms of national parks and national nature reserves, points out the confusion in concept understanding and management of national parks and national nature reserves in China, and puts forward corresponding suggestions.
  • TIAN Xueying, SHI Bin, WANG Qiang, LU Xin, WANG Chen, LI Miaomiao, YU Qiqi
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 21-30. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.003
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    To understand the development status and problems of sci-tech periodicals in Shandong province, and improve its academic influence, core competitiveness and the ability to serve the overall situation,it is necessary to create a high-level scientific and technological journal phalanx with international communication power and highlighting Shandong characteristics. By distributing questionnaires to 131 sci-tech periodicals and holding seminars, the development status of sci-tech periodicals in Shandong province was investigated in the following five aspects: basic information, composition of human resources, grants and subsidies, business status, and new media development. It was obtained that all of the sci-tech periodicals in Shandong province were small, scattered and weak, being characterized by scattered publishing resources, unbalanced discipline layout, lack of excellent editors, low overall academic influence, and insufficient media-periodicals integration capacity. Suggestions to promote high-quality development of sci-tech periodicals in Shandong province are as follows: optimize the layout of publishing structure, improve the development environment of sci-tech periodicals, strengthen the construction of editors, empower their capacity to publish, promote their cluster construction and promote sci-tech digital transformation.
  • Exclusive: Meteorology enables high-quality economic and social development
  • SI Peng, XU Wenhui, WANG Min
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 31-48. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.004
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    The numbers of extreme weather and climate events in many parts of the world are increasing due to climate change, and this phenomenon will become more frequent and severe. A complete and reliable climate observation series over long-time scale is an important basis for interpreting climate change and evaluating model simulation performance. It is also a reliable observation basis for deeply and systematically detecting the characteristics of global, regional or local extreme climate change and predicting the future trend of climate change. In this paper, some important research achievements are summarized, which have been recently made in construction of long-term climate observation series on global, regional and local scales at home and abroad. Several global surface temperature and precipitation climate datasets and their important values for the science of climate change are analyzed. Moreover, technologies and key scientific problems in constructing climate observation series over long-time scale that need to be improved and solved urgently are also discussed. Results indicate that some progress has been made in construction technology of climate observation series over long-time scale for supporting the development of climate change operations. However, there are still some main problems that need to be solved in view of the urgent need of data supply capacity under new situation, i. e., enriching the types of the observed elements, restoring the integrity of historical data, improving the quality of data products, and refining the spatial scale of the object and the temporal scale of the elements. Therefore, a scientific basis can be provided for further enhancing the application value of precious long-term climate observations in meteorological service guarantee and scientific and technological innovation in China.
  • WANG Yuhong, YANG Xiaodan, REN Liwen, YUAN Xiaoyu, LIANG Li, ZHAO Luqiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 49-57. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.005
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    Understanding the characteristics of wildfire spread is one of the important reference bases for wildfire prevention and fighting. According to whether the interaction between wildfire and atmosphere is considered, the simulation models of wildfire spread are divided into uncoupled models and coupled models. In this paper the current research status is analyzed, and the existing models are summarized in terms of the principles and assumptions on which the model is based, the model’s characteristics and applicable conditions, and the relevant research progress. It shows that uncoupled models mainly establish combustion models through approximations such as energy balance equations, combustion decomposition assumptions, or ignition experiments, using meteorological factors such as wind as initial conditions to drive fire models. Whereas in most coupled models, the relevant elements of the weather model and the fire model are fed back to their models at each time step, and the integration calculation is continuously cycled to achieve mutual coupling between the atmosphere and wildfire. Compared to uncoupled models, coupled models simulate wildfire spread more closely to the actual situation, especially for large wildfires.

  • JIANG Ying, CHEN Zhongyu, ZHANG Xiaomei, WANG Yuhong, GAO Jingjing, HU Ruoyu, ZHANG Hui, WU Hao
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 58-68. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.006
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    Complex topography along with unevenly distributed precipitation and changes in climate pattern make mountainous regions railway in China vulnerable to water-related geological hazards and rainfall-induced floods. This study investigates the impact of global warming on the safe operation of railways by analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of precipitation, changes in precipitation level distributions, and variations in the threshold hours for rainfall alert levels. The findings are as follows: (1) In recent years, there has been a significant decrease in annual precipitation in southern Jiangnan and south China, while there has been a significant increase in precipitation in the eastern parts of northwest and the northeastern parts of southwest. Management Areas of Guangzhou, Nanchang and Nanning Railway Bureaus have the highest annual precipitation which shows a decreasing trend, while areas of Zhengzhou, Jinan, and Xi'an Bureaus show an increasing trend in annual precipitation. The strong East Asian summer monsoon and the northward shift of the subtropical high are the main causes of precipitation changes. (2) Shenyang Bureau shows the most significant increase in precipitation intensity, while Nanning Bureau shows the most significant decrease. The changes in precipitation intensity are mainly related to variations in typhoons and short-duration heavy rainfall. (3) From the perspective of precipitation level distribution, in the past five years there has been a decrease in the frequency of heavy precipitation occurrence in bureaus such as Urumqi and Lanzhou in the northwest region, while there has been an increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation occurrence in bureaus such as Nanchang and Chengdu in the southwest to Jiangnan region. (4) Guangdong, Hainan, the eastern parts of the southwest region, and the northeastern parts of North China to the southeastern parts of Northeast China are the three high-value areas for railway alert hours due to precipitation. The high-value area for speed restriction hours has narrowed down to the eastern parts of the southwest region, and the high-value area for closure hours has further narrowed down. Overall, under the background of climate change, there has been a significant decrease in precipitation in southern Jiangnan and South China, leading to a reduction in rainfall hours and railway patrol hours, a slight decrease in speed restriction hours, and a decrease in the alert pressure for railway precipitation control. On the other hand, there has been a significant increase in railway patrol hours in the eastern parts of the southwest region to the northeastern parts of Northeast China, with a noticeable increase in speed restriction and closure hours in the eastern parts of the southwest region. This has resulted in an enhancement of alert pressure for railway precipitation control, with Chengdu Bureau showing a significant increase in patrol hours, speed restriction hours, and closure hours.
  • WANG Yuhong, SONG Jianyang*, PEI Shunqiang, ZHANG Xiaomei, LI Xiaozhu, WANG Yan, PAN Yu
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 69-78. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.007
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    Based on survey data and statistical analysis methods, the demands for agrometeorological services are studied by industries and users in terms of the key points of meteorological impact and meteorological service intervention points. The results show the followings, 1) there are significant differences in demand among different industries in the agricultural field. Planting production industry users focus on rainfall, temperature/accumulated temperature, soil moisture and drought. Aquaculture industry users focus on temperature, precipitation, water temperature/sea temperature, cold wave, atmospheric pressure and frozen rain and snow. Animal husbandry industry users have relatively low dependence on meteorological conditions, mainly focusing on temperature, rainfall and strong convective weather. 2) different industries in the agricultural field have high requirements for spatiotemporal refinement of meteorological service products, but there are significant differences among different users. 3) the overall demand of agriculture for conventional weather monitoring, forecasting and warning, professional meteorological monitoring, forecasting and warning, agrometeorological elements index forecasting and disaster impact assessment/resource assessment products exceed 92.6%. 4) agricultural users have a high demand for direct meteorological data connection, product services, system platforms and other product types, and generally hope to obtain meteorological service products through mobile APP/applet/official account, WeChat/QQ group and mobile SMS.
  • Reviews
  • LIN Shaofeng, SHI Gang, JIANG Dazhi
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 79-89. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.008
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    The rapid development of high-speed aircraft, microelectronic devices and other fields puts forward higher requirements for the thermal conductivity of thermal management materials. Graphene with excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity is an ideal new generation of thermal management materials. The research status and development prospect of graphene as a high thermal conductivity material are introduced. Firstly, the preparation methods of graphene materials are summarized, including mechanical peeling, epitaxial growth, chemical vapor deposition and redox. Thermal conductivity mechanisms of different types of graphene materials are discussed. Graphene materials carry out heat conduction through phonons and electrons with phonon heat conduction being the mainstay. The thermal resistance network model and thermal conduction permeability model are discussed. The research progress and application of monolayer or less-layer graphene, graphene film, carbon nanotube/graphene composite film and phase-change polymer/graphene composite materials in the field of thermal management are summarized.
  • MIAO Feng, MAO Jinglu, YANG Lei, ZHANG Jingbin, WANG Shuai
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 90-97. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.009
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    Electro-mechanical braking technology has gradually found wide applications in aviation, automobile and other industrial fields due to its remarkable technical advantages, it also has a good development prospect and market space in the field of rail vehicles. This paper summarizes the research progress of electro-mechanical braking technology for rail vehicles. Firstly, the braking principle of electro-mechanical braking technology is introduced and the key technologies to be overcome for the application of electro-mechanical braking technology to rail vehicles are analyzed. Then, the research status of the electromechanical braking technology of rail vehicles at home and abroad is summarized. Finally, the challenges faced by the mass commercial application of electro-mechanical braking in rail vehicle industry are analyzed, so as to provide reference for the follow-up research and product development of electro-mechanical braking for rail vehicles.
  • HE Junqing, CHEN Sisi, CHENG Rong, XU Huifang, ZHENG Xiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 98-113. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.010
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    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective extracorporeal life support measure that played a crucial role in the treatment of critically patients with COVID-19. However, its core component, oxygenation membrane for ECMO, has been monopolized by foreign countries for a long time. This study used the Incopat and retrieved form it the patents in the field of oxygenated membranes for ECMO worldwide, which were then analyzied as the original data to disclose the trend and trajectory of technology development, the layout of global market and technology from the perspective of patents. The result shows that COVID-19 has stimulated the development of technology. China becomes the world's third largest source and distribution of patent applications in the field as well as an important target market, but its high-value patents account for a small proportion. Except for a few patents related to membrane preparation and its device, membrane modification, and membrane module, most of the Chinese patents involve the optimal design of oxygenator and related auxiliary technologies, and most of them are utility model patents. The preparation method and optimization process of hollow fiber membrane for ECMO, new polymer materials, membrane modification and composite membrane research are the current hot research topics. Recently Chinese patents reported the preparation technology of PMP hollow fiber membranes for ECMO and related devices, which are expected to achieve a breakthrough in the preparation technology of high-performance PMP hollow fiber membranes. Innovations can be made for the existing defects of polymer material synthesis technology and membrane preparation technology. Meanwhile, it is necessary to increase the research of biocompatibility modification technology and find new materials with better performance to achieve technological breakthrough. Promoting the localization of oxygenation membranes for ECMO will help the localization of ECMO systems.
  • Papers
  • TONG Xin, SUN Xin, WANG Peng, QIU Zizhen, LI Jianxin, SHI Jianrong, WANG Huichu, DING Yi
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 114-126. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.011
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    As a core key component of new energy passenger vehicles, permanent magnet motor that add rare earth minerals such as dysprosium and terbium can improve the basic characteristics such as remanence and coercivity. With the acceleration of the comprehensive electrification of vehicles, the prominent contradiction between supply and demand of rare earth minerals is highlighted. A dynamic material flow analysis method is used in this study to predict the demand for praseodymium, neodymium, dysprosium, and terbium resources in China's passenger car electrification transformation. This analysis identifies the supply and demand risks for different rare earth resources. To promote the sustainable development of electric vehicles and sustainable utilization of rare earth resources in China, the study suggests coordinating the promotion of resource security and the dual carbon strategy, exploring resource reduction and alternative technologies, and scientifically promoting independent mining and international cooperation.
  • YANG Jiemeng, MO Zhongjun, GUO Junchao, JI Run, TAO Chunjing, FAN Yubo
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 127-133. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.012
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    Walking aids can effectively ameliorate or keep the walking ability and balance ability of the elderly individuals. However, long-term assisted walking will have adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system of the upper extremities. This paper reviews the effects of bimanual-operated unpowered walking aids on the user's upper extremities from the perspectives of kinematics, kinetics and electromyography, along with a brief overview of the relationship between unpowered walking aids use and upper extremities injuries. The effects of changing the walking aids construction on the upper extremities are compared and further summarized. This work could provide a theoretical reference for the personalized designing and instructions of walking aids for the elderly individuals.
  • YIN Xue, LIANG Qin, ZHANG Lizhou
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(21): 134-144. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.21.013
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    Innovation, promotion and application of green and low-carbon technology is an important measure to implement the "double carbon" goal, and it is also an important driving force to promote the green and low-carbon transformation of industry and achieve high-quality economic development. Using the system dynamics model, this paper takes 2015—2021 as the simulation period, explores the coupling model and driving mechanism of green patent output based on the three dimensions of government, enterprise, and university and research, verifies the validity of the model through historical test and sensitivity analysis, and simulates the change trend of green patent output in the future. The results show as follows. The three subsystems of government, enterprise, and university and research affect the output of green patents through different driving paths. Among all the driving paths, increasing the intensity of government's investment in university and research or scientific and technological innovation, enterprises' investment in industry, university and research, and financial institutions' investment in university and research can promote the increase of green patent output in the future. Therefore, this paper suggests that under the comprehensive action of the government, enterprises, and university and research, and guided by the green low-carbon industry and the "dual carbon" goal, taking green technology innovation as the means of development will further accelerate the completion of the "dual carbon" goal.