18 November 2023, Volume 41 Issue 22

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    Special to S&T Review
  • YANG Haifeng, SU Buda, WANG Dongfang, JIANG Han, JIANG Shan, JIANG Tong
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 6-12. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.001
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Carbon neutrality is a global consensus for climate change mitigation and adaptation and an important strategic choice for sustainable economic and social development. Achieving carbon neutrality is arduous and time-critical, and carbon emission reduction and carbon sequestration initiatives must be systematically implemented in critical areas. Based on the current situation and characteristics of China's carbon imbalance, we summarize and propose a pathway framework for moving toward carbon neutrality, discuss the specific implementation pathways for carbon emission reduction in energy systems and carbon sink enhancement in ecosystems, and point out that we should strengthen research on the synergistic relationship between emission reduction and sink enhancement and socio-economic development under climate change, aiming to help China achieve the goal of carbon neutrality scientifically and steadily.
  • Suggestions
  • LI Jinghong
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 13-14. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.002
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    With the increase of national investment in higher education, the scale and quantity of university laboratoriesm continue to increase, followed by security problems. It is suggested to build an operation and management platform driven by big data, information and digital technology for the production, storage and transportation, procurement, use and recovery of hazardous chemicals to supervise the management and use of hazardous chemicals in colleges and universities.
  • LIU Qing
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 15-21. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.003
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    With its integration into all areas of economy and society, digital technology is exerting a broad and profound impact on human production and life. To promote the construction of first-class science and technology associations, it is required to fully comprehend the key dimensions of digital transformation of science and technology associations, clarify the opportunities and challenges for their future development, and identify the key paths for their transformation and improvement. Based on the experience in planning and construction of platforms such as Smart CAST, Smart CRSTA, and China Volunteers in Science and Technology, the author summarizes and proposes the planning and implementation framework of digital transformation of science and technology associations from five aspects, with a view to facilitating the informatization, digitalization and intellectualization of science and technology associations, and providing optimal services for both science and technology workers and the building of an innovative country.
  • Exclusive:Ecological priority and green development
  • YANG Bo, FU Hui, GUO Shiqi, WANG Jun
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 22-29. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.004
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    Marine ecological protection is an important development basis for China's ocean green development. On the one hand, it can provide sustainable resources and environment for green development. On the other hand, it can enhance the carbon sink capacity of the ocean and strengthen green development in achieving China's "double carbon" goals. This paper systematically reviews the current situation and challenges of China's marine ecological protection, including sub-health status of most marine ecosystem, threat of marine environmental hazard, depletion of fishery resources, high risk of coastal development and lack of marine ecological restoration funding. Based on these situations, this paper proposes the strategic goals for China's marine ecological protection. Finally, from the perspectives of space management, financial guarantee, system improvement and marketization of carbon sink, this paper puts forward the development path of China's marine ecological protection to fulfill green development.
  • SONG Shuang, HAN Jianbo, CHEN Hong, YANG Wenchao
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 30-37. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.005
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    In this article, the role of CO2 geological sub-seabed storage in the field of climate change is discussed, as well as the development trends of CO2 geological sub-seabed storage in China and abroad. Furthermore, countermeasures for the development of this technology are proposed. From the aspects of geological structure characteristics and coastal industrial layout, China has the advantages of developing CO2 geological sub-seabed storage. A large number of foreign engineering applications have proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the technology. In recent years, engineering practices have also been launched in China. CO2 geological sub-seabed storage has been subject to the jurisdiction of international conventions, and some developed countries have established special management systems. Combined with China's overall positioning for the development of CO2 geological sub-seabed storage based on carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals, the possible challenges in the future are elaborated and corresponding countermeasures are proposed.
  • WANG Bo, WANG Hantao, FEI Da
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 38-46. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.006
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    Study on the decoupling relationship between transport carbon emission and economic growth is of great practical significance for achieving the goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. This paper mainly uses a "bottom-up" transportation carbon emission calculation method to calculate the annual transportation carbon emission of railways, aviation, water, and roads in China and various provinces. It analyzes the spatiotemporal changes of China's transportation carbon emission from 2000 to 2020, and uses the Tapio decoupling models to explore the decoupling status of China's transportation carbon emission. It is found that (1) From 2000 to 2020, the total carbon emission from China's transportation increased from 237.7441 million tons to 1390.5147 million tons. The period from 2004 to 2011 was a period of rapid growth, and the growth rate began to slow down after 2012; (2) From 2000 to 2020, road carbon emission was the main source of carbon emissions in China's transportation, with a slight increase in the proportion of carbon emission from air transportation and a significant decrease in the proportion of carbon emission from railways and waterways; (3) From 2000 to 2020, there were significant regional differences in transportation carbon emission in the four major regions of eastern, central, western, and northeastern China; (4) From 2000 to 2020, the carbon emissions and economic development of China's transportation industry showed an overall trend of "relative decoupling", with most provinces including Beijing and Shanghai achieving "decoupling".
  • HUANG Ailing, MA Ruichen, WANG Jiamei, QIN Jianmin
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 47-57. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.007
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    The green development of China's logistics industry is a key area for the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. This article combines the connotation of green development in the logistics industry to study and construct a green logistics development level indicator system. Based on the carbon emissions inventory and statistical yearbook data of China's provincial-level transportation, logistics, and warehousing industry from 2014 to 2019, factor analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of green logistics development indicators to form 8 influencing factors. A geographic weighted regression model was applied to explain the provincial differences and spatiotemporal evolution patterns of the driving factors of carbon emissions intensity in China's logistics industry. The study found that during the sample investigation period, the carbon emission intensity of China's logistics industry at the provincial level showed an aggregation phenomenon of weakening year by year, and showed a basic spatial differentiation pattern of "strong in the west and weak in the east". The factor center of gravity showed a trend of shifting from the east to the central region. The factors of extensive logistics development and logistics equipment have the strongest positive effects on carbon emission intensity, while the factors of energy cleanliness, freight structure adjustment, and innovation have inhibitory effects. Based on the analysis results and the resource endowments and development strategies of each province, policy implications for the development of green logistics in China were proposed.
  • SHI Xiaodong,YANG Yue, ZHANG Wenyong, XU Yanfeng
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 58-66. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.008
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    As the main field for carbon emission reduction, megacities play a key role in the green transformation process. Based on the dual challenges of high-quality development and "Dual-Carbon" goals of megacities, this paper focuses on the two levels of carbon reduction and carbon fixation, systematically builds the method for the target of "Carbon Peak and Neutrality" with the joint promotion of energy transformation and resources efficiency as well as the mutual support of carbon sequestration technology innovation and ecological carbon sink, carries out the strategy research based on the low-carbon transformation of energy structure, resilient development of urban upgrade, quality improvement of ecological system and green reconstruction of transportation system, and aims to provide valuable reference in regard of the promoting low-carbon development of megacities and realizing the national strategic goal of "Dual-Carbon".
  • FANG Chaoxiong, HU Zhenda, CHEN Hanshi, ZHANG Linyao, TU Xiazhe, LIU Yupeng, CHEN Weiqiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 67-76. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.009
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    Transition to "cleaner" electricity is crucial to achieving the target of carbon peak and carbon neutrality in China and it depends on structure optimization. In this study, a multi-objective model is established to optimize electricity structure in Fujian province under three carbon sink scenarios in 2060. The results show that: (1) Currently, the thermal power still dominates the electricity generation, the hydropower has peaked, the nuclear power is increasing, and the other sources (e. g., wind, solar, biomass) begin to grow. (2) Under the optimal carbon emission scenario, Fujian province has to increase its installed capacity of electric power to 255 million kilowatts, rapidly develop renewable energy, and widely apply energy storage batteries in 2060. (3) Under the optimal power structure scenario, Fujian province would need to increase its installed capacity of electric power to 180 million kilowatts and form a balanced source of electricity. (4) Under the optimal power structure stability scenario, the installed capacity of electric power merely has to reach 205.5 million kilowatts, but the costs on construction and upgrading of the Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technology would be very high. In summary, the coverage of CCUS higher than 82% and the annual natural carbon sink "quota" of electricity sector exceeding 26.2 million tons are two thresholds for Fujian province to form a renewable and "clean" electricity and achieve carbon neutrality in 2060.
  • ZHOU Jun, ZHOU Mingsheng, ZHUO Na
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 77-82. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.010
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    The digital economy has become a leading force in building national competitiveness and promoting green economic development. As the leading industry of the national economy, the manufacturing industry undergoes green transformation, which is an important way for high-quality economic development. This paper systematically discusses the important role of digital economy as a new economic form in empowering traditional industries and promoting deep integration among various industries, and it summarizes the development trend and strategic layout of digital economy in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Finally, it proposes thoughts and suggestions based on the practice of digital transformation and green development in China's manufacturing industry.
  • Reviews
  • GUO Jun, ZAN Ruoyi, WEN Hu, WANG Kaixuan, JIN Yongfei
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 83-90. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.011
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    The rapid and accurate quantification of coal temperature in restricted spaces in complex coal mining areas has always been a worldwide problem. In view of the limitations of the existing coal fire detection technology, the current research status of coal fire detection technology is summarized, and it is pointed out that the current mainstream measurement methods of hidden high temperature points in loose coal bodies in mining areas can be divided into two categories: contact temperature measurement and non-contact temperature measurement; the current research status of acoustic temperature measurement technology is reviewed, the temperature-sensitive characteristics of acoustic waves and the propagation characteristics of acoustic waves are analyzed, the current research status of combustion sound is summarized, and combustion sound generation mechanism, combustion sound frequency under different conditions and the fire detection technology based on combustion sound identification are analyzed. The concept of a new coal temperature sensing technology is put forward by studying the propagation characteristics of applied sound waves with different frequencies in heating loose coal, grasping the influence of different experimental conditions on the propagation law of "dual source" composite sound waves of external acoustic wave and combustion sound.
  • Papers
  • LIU Jian, LI Yueli
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 91-97. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.012
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    Four kinds of test steels with different vanadium and nitrogen contents were smelted and cast by VN16 and FeV80 vanadium microalloying method. The effects of vanadium and nitrogen contents on the microstructure, strength and toughness of high strength hot-rolled steel plate were studied. The results show that the microstructure of test steels is ferrite and pearlite. When the nitrogen content is very low, the ferrite grain of vanadium microalloyed steel is coarse. Although increasing vanadium can refine the ferrite grain, the degree of refinement is not large. The ferrite grain of vanadium-nitrogen microalloyed steel is fine, and the increase of nitrogen can obviously refine the ferrite grain. The higher the nitrogen content, the greater the refinement degree. The nitrogen content is the main factor affecting the ferrite grain refinement. In vanadium microalloyed steel, the second phase particles are mainly precipitated in ferrite, which plays a strong role in precipitation strengthening, and the fine grain strengthening is relatively weak, resulting in the obvious increase of steel strength and decrease of toughness and plasticity when vanadium is added. In vanadium-nitrogen microalloyed steel, increasing nitrogen can effectively promote the precipitation of second phase particles in austenite, significantly enhance the fine grain strengthening effect of vanadium and weaken the precipitation strengthening effect, resulting in the improvement of steel strength, toughness and plasticity. The higher the nitrogen content, the more significant the strengthening effect.
  • Science and Technology Humanities
  • ZHANG Hang, ZHANG Hongguang, NIE Fuling
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(22): 98-108. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.22.013
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    This article summarizes the unique development process of amateur radio under the joint influence of technology policies and folk technology enthusiasts during the Republic of China period, and analyzes the contradiction between the desire of enthusiasts to carry out research smoothly and the government's science and technology policies that were full of skepticism and restrictions. It showcases a historical process during which the active measures taken by enthusiasts solved conflicts. It is concluded that in some special periods, there will be different scientific views between the folk academic circles and the political circles. When contradiction occurs, there will be a complex interaction between the important folk technological enthusiast groups and the government management. The former has the ability to feed back and coordinate against policy obstacles, so as to promote scientific and technological progress. This historical process also shows that only the science and technology policy of encouraging and standardizing can promote the good development of technological enthusiasm.