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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 99-100.
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    YU Yang, WANG Jiangyun
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 101-105.
    The directed evolution is a method to obtain proteins with desired traits by mimicking the evolution process at the molecular level in a lab environment. It is an important method for protein design and engineering. Apart from the engineering natural proteins, the directed evolution can be used to construct artificial enzymes by modifying the existing enzymes to have new catalytic activities. This paper reviews the recent studies of the industrial biocatalysis, the nanozyme design and the photocatalysis, as well as the challenges and the problems in the field of the directed evolution and the artificial enzyme.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 106-108.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 109-111.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 112-113.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(8): 114-116.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(2): 92-93.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(2): 94-97.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(2): 98-100.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37(24): 118-121.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37(22): 143-148.
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    LIANG Long, BRADLEY G. Ridoutt, XIE Bin, ZHANG Sasa, AWEKEY M. Gelaw, MENG Weiting, WANG Liyuan, GUO Yanbin, ZHAO Guishen
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 82-89.
    There are an estimated 2 billion people suffered from the hidden hunger (HH) with a diet lacking adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients. Improving the nutritional quality of food produced and consumed is therefore an important global priority to improve human health and wellbeing, especially for children, women and families in low-income countries where the HH is prevalent. In China, around 300 million people suffer from the HH, and in this paper, the concept of functional foods is proposed and a new strategy, known as the functional agriculture (FA) is developed to combat the HH. This new approach is now officially accepted by the Chinese government with the emergence of a FA industry. Traditional approaches to combat the HH include the food supplementation, the industrial fortification during the food processing, and the promotion of the dietary diversification. The FA, on the other hand, involves the enhancement of the food nutritional quality through improved agronomic practices, plant breeding, biotechnology and other forms of biofortification in the food system. Already there is evidence that the biofortification of crops can be effective in reducing the HH. Ongoing technology development and institutional improvement are seen as the key actions needed to realize the full potential of the FA. The former includes the developments in genetic engineering, agricultural microbiology, biofortification of feeding for livestock, new processing technology, as well as monitoring and evaluation technology. The latter includes the logistics management as well as the new developments in financing, enterprise development and strengthening of research institutions. The FA is expected to play an important role in combating the HH in China and through the "One Belt One Road" initiative to have a wider impact throughout the world.
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    XU Zhili, LIANG Jingdan
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(23): 103-107.
    Since 2012 there has been much controversy in building the super collider in China. The debate relates to scientific knowledge, scientific community internal and external, and social factors at many other levels. Sociology of scientific knowledge shows that the essence of the debate involves the inherent social attributes of scientific knowledge including scientific ontology, scientific cognition, and scientific intrinsic value. The internal sociology of scientific community shows that the debate involves scientific norms, scientific priorities, peer review and other topics. The external sociology of scientific community shows that the debate involves the scientific and social functions of value considerations, science and technology operation of social resource allocation, science and technology public policy choices, etc. At the same time, it associates with the previous two levels of implication. The social factors of these scientific arguments constitute the theoretical dimension of their sociological analysis.
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    HOU Yuemin, JI Linhong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(22): 101-104.
    The design science is not a new discipline but its contents undergo a change in the recent decade. Its focus changes from a coverage of almost all aspects relevant to the design process and the product design, to related scientific theories and methods. The frontier of the design science is to develop systematic theories and methods of design as a science. The Design Society launched a new journal named "Design Science" with an editorial article "Design Science:Why, What and How", and a discussion of 29 authors on the design science, which are reviewed in this paper.
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    WANG Geng, ZHENG Jinyang, JIANG Lijun, CHEN Jian, HAN Wulin, CHEN Linxin
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(22): 105-110.
    Abstract (1075) PDF (2724) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The hydrogen energy, as an energy resource in China, enjoys many good properties, such as extremely low pollution and storability on a large scale. The hydrogen energy may serve not only as a key means to resolve the structural surplus within the electric power industry but also as an important direction to improve our country's environment and to reduce the air pollutant emission. Currently, the hydrogen energy industry is in a rapid development as the scale of the applied global hydrogen energy, especially the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle application, increases sharply. In view of letting the hydrogen energy industry to develop in a scientific, sustainable and healthy manner, this paper reviews the current situation of the hydrogen energy industry in China in terms of the hydrogen production, the storage, the transportation, the safety, and the applications, on basis of large amount of industry survey and study at home and abroad. Several suggestions are proposed on the diversified development of the hydrogen energy industry in our country.
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    PAN Letian
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 125-130.
    Multi-domain battle has been the focus of the future US military development. The multi-domain battle, the US Army's new warfare concept, calling for the four armed services to work more closely together than ever before in all domains, reflects the major changes in the US army and the US military joint operations against so-called anti-access/area denial threats. This paper reviews the concept, target and means of multi-domain battle, and analyzes the status quo of the trend and countermeasures.
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    MA Xinqiang, LIU Yong, FAN Jing, HUANG Yi, WU Maonian, ZHANG Mingyi
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 131-137.
    In the construction of smart city, the depth development of Internet, Internet of things, communication networks and large-scale intelligent services will result in massive, heterogeneous, multi-source big spatio-temporal urban data. In the era of big data, we should think deeply about the construction of smart city. How to deal with these large-scale and complicated urban data is facing enormous challenges, including data collection, sensing, storage, management, mining, visualization and efficient services. In this paper we mainly discuss the driving effects of big data on smart city in the views of technology, legislation and management. We analyze the features and applications of big spatio-temporal urban data in two directions, point out the importance of legislation from the perspective of data assets, and summarize the management of smart city in terms of policy management, rewards and punishments, and market mechanisms. Finally, we put forward some thoughts on the construction of smart city driven by big data.
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    LI Xiaohui, HE Defang, PENG Jie
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(19): 81-84.
    The United States, Japan and Germany are the world's scientific and technological powers and economic powers. Their governments have long paid attention to the cooperation of industry, university and research institute to promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements into real productivity. After several years of practicing, each of the three countries gradually formed its own unique cooperative model that suits its own national conditions. Based on the analysis of the main models of the three countries, some suggestions on promoting the development of our country's industry-university-research institute cooperations are given.
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    XU Lingyu
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(19): 85-90.
    Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages. The security of encryption that uses quantum key distribution relies on the foundation of quantum mechanics, in contrast to the traditional public key cryptography, which relies on the computational difficulty of certain mathematical functions and cannot provide any mathematical proof as to the actual complexity of reversing the one-way functions used. The history and future development of quantum cryptography are also briefly discussed.
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    TIAN Yuzhao
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(15): 84-90.
    The deserticulture theory by Qian Xuesen is to transform deserts and Gobi deserts into oasis by utilization of advanced science and technology. This theory can be interpreted as"more lighting, less water-using, advanced technology and high profit". The 224 farm of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) on the southwestern fringe of the Taklamakan desert, vineyards in the Gobi deserts of Jiayuguan, farmlands of controlled-environmental agriculture and greenhouses are all demonstrations of the deserticulture theory. Microalgae can be considered as an efficient solar power converter. Microalgae farms constructed in Engebei in Kubuqi desert, Jilantai in Ulanbuh desert and Otog Banner in Mu Us desert are chlorophyll factories. These factories produce high-quality nutriments in deserts. We will follow the path directed by Qian Xuesen and promote the productivity in the new oasis in the future.
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    LI Xiaohui, HE Defang, PENG Jie
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(23): 137-142.
    Since 1980s, in order to further accelerate the process of technology transfer, the U.S. government has formulated and implemented a series of laws and regulations, and established a relatively perfect policy system. On the other hand, many policy measures have been implemented, such as, providing adequate funding for transformation project, paying more attention to information extension services of achievements, supporting the cooperation between enterprises and scientific research institutions, encouraging researchers to actively participate in technology transfer and technological innovation, just to name a few. The successful experiences and practices are worth referencing by China in respects of improving the laws and policy system in terms of promotion of technology transfer and technological innovation.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(18): 79-80.
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    LI Ji
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(13): 93-98.
    Because lack of hypothesis of single factor in test of lab and exist high cost, hard-to-reduplicated and data "noise" in field experiment, one of the bottlenecks to limit the development of ecology is the suitable test method of ecological hypothesis' decisive experiment. This paper introduces the origin of test of ecological hypothesis, analysis function of test method of decisive experiment, demonstrates the test in lab and the theory, exercise and development of test method of field experiment of ecological hypothesis, and, discusses the operation criteria of ecological field experiment (coordinated distributed experiments, CDEs), proposed by Fraser et al (2013), and native case (CARE-China).
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    Yu Shi
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(8): 107-112.
    Abstract (1288) PDF (458) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    In 1915, Einstein predicted gravitational waves, presented the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and completed his concept of photon. In one hundred years, gravitational waves were directly detected through the interference of lasers, which are exactly based on Einstein's quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation. The techniques of gravitational wave detection are also related to Einstein 's concept of photons and theory of Brownian motion. The first direct detection of gravitational waves was a commemoration of the centenaries of both contributions of Einstein, one being general relativity and prediction of gravitational waves, the other being quantum theory of radiation. After a review of the “Einsteinian elements” in gravitational detection techniques, that is, the lasers, the photons and the thermal noises, we survey Einstein's research activities in 1916 and look for the historic connections between Einstein's work on gravitational waves and his work on quantum theory of electromagnetic waves, by analyzing the first-hand materials, especially the correspondence of Einstein during that period.
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    LIU Yue, LIAO Chunfa
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(7): 139-148.
    Abstract (1499) PDF (2520) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    In 2015, OneWeb and SpaceX were developed as the Emerging Satellite Internet Constellation Projects among others. This paper reviews the development of the satellite internet constellation since the 1990s, and discusses the characteristics of different ones in different periods and the key factors that affect the success of the projects. This paper also makes an analysis of their advantages & risks on the context of the market positioning, the profit model, the satellite manufacturing, the satellite launching and the financing. The past failure lessons are used to evaluate the future new constellations. It is pointed out that the future development of emerging internet constellations will not simply repeat the past patterns. The emerging satellite constellations would have positive influences on the traditional satellite communication industry, the satellite operation, the satellite manufacturing and industry development concepts.
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    LIANG Huigang, HUANG Cui, SONG Donglin, CHEN Zongsheng, YUAN Zhiming
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(2): 307-312.
    Abstract (1133) PDF (2040) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Synthetic biology refers to artificial design and construction of genetic parts and biology systems, which is based on genetic engineering of systematic biology. We firstly review the development status of synthetic biology, the ethical issue, and the safety issue it may cause to the environment and public health. Europe and America support the development of synthetic biology while continuing to improve their management mechanisms. In view of the fact that domestic synthetic biology is still in its infancy, we recommend some corresponding countermeasures in the development of systematic biology based on the lessons from others countries, including strengthening risk assessment in the application and research of synthetic biology, improving supervision and management systems, strengthening biosafety and bioethics education, and promoting exchanges with the international community.
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    WU Xiaoping, LI Yusi, LIU Jiangwei
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(2): 313-317.
    Abstract (1135) PDF (610) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The railway energy consumption accounts for a major portion of the total energy consumption in the world. Because of the difference of the railway development level and national conditions,the characteristics of the railway energy consumption are different in different countries. According to the analysis of the railway consumption in representative countries and associated railway energy situations, a conclusion is drawn that, the railway energy consumption and the passenger/freight traffic volume are directly related to the energy consumption intensity. It is important in the railway transportation to use the limited energy to transport more passengers and freight. In order to reduce the railway energy consumption, it is necessary to improve the railway technical equipment and the traction proportion of electric locomotives, the transport organization and the transport organization forms.
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    LIU Wei
    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(2): 318-322.
    Abstract (1014) PDF (196) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    A network with a large number of triangular relations, whose cluster coefficient could be controlled, was constructed in this study. The local dynamics of social balance in the triangle-growing networks was studied through computer simulations. The results show that the statistical features of the networks are approximately the same as the complete graph when the adding-link probability pa≥0.5, and the evolution of the social balance is independent on the initial conditions; moreover, the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition when the transition probability p≥1/2. However, when the network is sparse, i.e. pa<0.5, the final state of the system depends on the initial state and the system does not experience the dynamic phase transition.
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    Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34(1): 139-140.
    青蒿素及其药效的发现是一项智识成果。本文从喹啉类抗疟药物研究的范式和启发法、地方性传统民族植物学遗产2 个方面,分析了青蒿素研究者所利用和开发的无形资源。
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    WANG Zhengqi
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(24): 114-117.
    Abstract (1163) PDF (1726) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    As a new paradigm of sensing in the Internet of Things, the mobile crowdsensing network takes advantage of ubiquitous sensing device within a specific range to collect sensing data of individuals, situations and environments for a variety of applications. This paper introduces the current application development of the mobile crowdsensing network, analyzes the development trend of intelligent transportation services, infrastructure and municipal management, environmental monitoring, early warning, social relations and public safety, public health and medical services. Then it proposes a number of security challenges faced by the mobile crowdsensing network in the future, including user privacy protection, security of the sensing data and platform, the improvement of sensing quality and efficiency, and resources consumption optimization.
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    BAO Mengyao, FAN Fei, ZHAO Yang
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(18): 96-101.
    Abstract (1560) PDF (898) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    CS-E is the airworthiness standard of aircraft engine in Europe and it is under constant changing to adapt to new safety demands of airworthiness certification. In this paper, starting from the three level division of aero-engine airworthiness system of European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the status and responsibility of CS-E are firstly expounded, and then the logical structure and historical amendments of CS-E are analyzed. In the analysis, the revised regulations in each amendment are particularly focused on and the revised reason of regulation can be generalized into five aspects: development of technology, hazardous accident, overly strict rules or vice versa, unclear definition or explanation, and international uniformity. Thus, this survey provides reference to the development and improvement of airworthiness system in China.
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    OU Lina, ZHONG Gansheng, LIU Haiyan, CHEN Shaohong, LIU Jia
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(16): 88-94.
    Abstract (1098) PDF (890) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    This paper reviews the antagonism theory and "eighteen incompatible medicaments", as well as the relevant provisions about them in the Pharmacopoeia of China. It provides suggestions for further research concerning the "eighteen incompatible medicaments" through analysis of their historical evolution and the status quo. The incompatibility arguments of the "eighteen incompatible medicaments" are discussed from aspects of literature review, experimental studies and clinical reports. It is found that clinical studies focus on retrospective summary of clinical reports, analyzing clinical safety evaluation and rules of compatible applications. Experimental studies are mostly carried out from aspects of chemical material foundation, pharmacology and toxicology.
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    LI Kuo, XU Yinlong
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(16): 95-101.
    Adaptation to climate change is an important measure to cope with climate change problems at present. Critera for identification of adaptation to climate change are the foundation to draw up lists of adaptation technologies, which are the important component of methodology on adaptation to climate change. Based on the analysis of climate change and its impact, the connotations of climate change problems that human face are identified. According to the definition of climate change, the core criterion for identification is confirmed, which is the pertinency of climate change problems. The key rests with how to distinguish the adaptation aspect from routine aspect of technologies. On the other hand, adaptation technologies and mitigation technologies are compared. It is an important criterion to discriminate between mitigating effects and adapting effects. According to the above critera, the existing adaptation technologies in different regions and different fields can be recognized and selected. It can provide guidance for the research on adaptation technologies to climate change in future, and establish a solid base for constructing the technology system of adaptation to climate change.
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    PAN Genxing, LI Lianqing, LIU Xiaoyu, CHENG Kun, BIAN Rongjun, JI Chunying, ZHENG Jufeng, ZHANG Xuhui, ZHENG Jinwei
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(13): 92-101.
    Abstract (1213) PDF (1628) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Treatment of crop straw has been an increasingly great challenge for China's agriculture and rural environment in the past decade. To break up institutional obstacles existing in straw treatment and burning ban, industrialized treatment for commercialized products has to be developed in line with market economy. Such industrialized treatment should focus on balanced utilization of energy and nutrients recycled in agriculture. In this review, biomass pyrolysis is introduced and its merits in straw treatment are discussed in detail. Addressing the properties and functions of biochar in soils and the agro-environment, we review the development of straw pyrolysis and biochar production, focusing on soil quality improvement and safe crop production in green agriculture. Industrialization of biomass pyrolysis and biochar production offers safe treatment of crop straw as well as new resources for agricultural production as biochar can be used to improve soil fertility, providing a green and innovative way for crop straw recycling. In the context of straw burning ban, the government is suggested to establish and improve subsidy policies for straw treatment, enhance supporting services for straw collection, and encourage the emerging industrial advantages of biomass pyrolysis to solve the problem of straw treatment through marketized development of green agriculture for developing sustainable agriculture in China.
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    YOU Zheng, MA Lin
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(12): 116-119.
    Abstract (1240) PDF (1466) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The positioning navigation and timing (PNT) is a dual-use technology which concerns the national strategy. The traditional global navigation satellite system is susceptible to the interference and the shelter and the inertial navigation error is accumulated. Based on the MEMS technology, combining the chip-scale atomic clock and the MEMS inertial measurement unit with the receiver of the global navigation satellite system, a micro positioning navigation and timing unit is formed. The atomic clock of the unit provides the precision clock signal, the unit broadcasts the positioning navigation and timing signal and the PNT nets are constructed. The units can be carried by micro-satellites or UAVs. The number of the units for the micro positioning navigation and timing system can be freely chosen and the arrangement can be freely configured. The micro positioning navigation and timing system can overcome the problems of the traditional PNT methods and change the pattern of the PNT.
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    LIU Guanglian, ZHANG Aikui
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(11): 114-119.
    Earth science has been profoundly transformed in the direction of system science. Grasping the development trend of earth science is helpful for understanding the general direction of earth science research. This paper inquires into the trend of earth science development, focusing on two frontier issues in earth science, geodynamics and superlarge deposits. Geodynamics is pivotal for studying earth formation and evolution, including lithospheric plate dynamics, mantle dynamics, core dynamics and core- mantle dynamics. The key to geodynamic studies is the power source of earth, involving integrity of the whole earth and interactions of earth spheres. Superlarge deposits, especially non- conventional ones, are formed with specific factors under specific conditions. The formation mechanism of superlarge deposits is also related to the interaction of earth spheres. Based on discussion of the aforementioned issues, earth science is considered to develop toward holistic and systematic orientation. Studies of a single earth sphere cannot meet the requirement of earth science development. Earth science research needs to be oriented toward systemization.
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    LÜ Guanping, CHEN Lei, SHEN Zhenyao
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(9): 108-119.
    Abstract (1124) PDF (889) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The temporal trend, regional distribution, subject type, author, organization and key works of researches are analyzed from the core database of Web of ScienceTM based on the bibliometrics method. The obtained results indicate that the study of the Three Gorges Reservoir has shown a sharp increasing tendency since the secondary period impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2006. Most of research papers are from China and the major popular journals are Geomorphology and so on. Among the research institutions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Normal University, East China Normal University have strong influences in this field. The major focusing issues include the effect of Three Gorges Reservoir on ecological environment, geological disaster, immigration in the middle and lower Yangtze River and reservoir region, among which ecological environment problem has attracted the most attention. Based on these analysis, development and application of models in this region, non-point source pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and their impact on climate change might become hot issues in the future.
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    GAO Jiping, PAN Yuntao, WU Yishan
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 112-119.
    Abstract (1127) PDF (617) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Compared to highly cited papers, less attention is paid to uncited papers. Taking 43 journals in the spectroscopy indexed by JCR in the 2013 as an example, this paper analyzes the 12462 uncited papers published from 2003 to 2012 from the perspectives of country, institution and topic distributions. With regard to the country distribution and the institution distribution, it is found that the uncited papers are mostly produced by the institutions and universities in Belarus, Ukraine, China, Russia, South Korea and other countries, whose mother tongues are not English. With regard ro the topics, the overlay network analysis in the time zone shows the topic distribution in different periods, including the Raman spectrum, the infrared spectrum, the mass spectrometry, the fluorescence spectroscopy and so on. Furthermore, from the distribution analysis, the possible influencing factors of the uncited papers may be identified.
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    LI Diyuan, MO Qiuzhe
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(6): 115-119.
    Abstract (1924) PDF (2071) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Singapore is a country of small land but large population. The population density is close to 10000 per square kilometre. With a severe lack of land resource in Singapore, the government pays a great attention to the development and utilization of the urban underground space. From the 80's in the 20th century, a series of underground space projects in its technical and developmental level have been completed in Singapore. For example, the metro, the underground commercial street, the underground parking, the underground pipe network system, the underground storage cavern, the large public underground space. The development of underground space projects in Singapore has made a remarkable progress both in theory and in practice. The paper first reviews some successful underground space projects and then discusses the technical difficulties encountered in the construction process. The purpose of the paper is to highlight some valuable experiences in both theoretical and practical fields in the urban underground projects. Within the context of the current urban underground space development of large cities in China, some suggestions are made.
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    REN Fujun, ZHAI Jiequan
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(3): 114-119.
    Abstract (1174) PDF (538) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    A university enjoys abundant S&T knowledge resources, facilities and human resources so as to have advantages in science popularization. Generally speaking, its development so far is unsatisfactory with many problems demanding a prompt solution. During past few years, the science popularization policy of China stipulates the university science popularization and scholars put forward several suggestions. This paper points out that the systematic consideration and the model design should be used to promote the university science popularization. From the perspective of a 3 level evaluation, including the government, the university and the university science popularization, this paper discusses how to promote the university science popularization and put forward a macroscopical solution.