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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 23
08 December 2010

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卷首语

The Popularization of Science in the "Shift" and Innovation

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 387 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 302 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 320 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 18-19. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 324 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 20-20. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 328 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 127-127. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 327 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 140-140. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 312 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 344 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 354 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 407 )
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 319 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 122-122. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 367 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 123-123. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 124-124. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 375 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 328 )

中国环境科学研究院气候中心 太原理工大学计算机科学与技术学院
Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 126-126. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 363 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 128-128. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 337 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 129-129. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 362 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 360 )
Exclusive

An Analysis of R&D Topic Selection of the Young Nobel Prize Winners

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 21-25. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 391 )
Among Nobel Prize winners during more than one hundred years, the award-winning achievements are mostly made while they were young (under 40 years old). Their significant achievements are to some extent related with their topic selection. It is found that their selected topics, include seven types, whose analysis will provide some guidance for Chinese young researchers.
Articles

Large Scale Tectonics Related with Earthquake

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 26-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 475 )
Before a large earthquake, its central region usually shows some quiescence. However, as viewed from a global large scale, the seismic activity pattern does show quite distinct characteristics. Linear pattern and circular arc pattern appear more common; the events constructed from above patterns are distributed on an equal span of distance as well. It has been recognized that the tectonics associated with the earthquake generation present a large scale nature globally. These large scale tectonics related with the earthquake generation control the progress of the earthquake preparation in a short term, and are very important in understanding the mechanism of earthquakes. This paper reviews the cases that large scale tectonics related with earthquake generation show before several large earthquakes (Tongshan earthquake of M7.8, 1976; Kunlun Mountain earthquake of M8.1, 2001; Wenchuan earthquake of M8.0, 2008) occurred in recent years in China. That gives some food for thought on earthquake predictions.

Numerical Study of the Characters of Typhoon Wipha Cloud Microphysical Processes

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 34-39. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 385 )
With the non-static mesoscale model ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System), by using the NCEP/NCAR global final analysis data, and the global surface and sounding data under MICAPS (Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System) assimilated in 4 dimensions as the initial field and lateral boundary conditions, the initial moisture field is adjusted according to the surface accumulated rain of each 6h, and the triple nested simulation is conducted to produce 3 dimensional high time-spatial resolution data including cloud microphysical process data. Then the main horizontal and vertical microphysical characters of the Typhoon (Wipha) are analysed. The results are significant for understanding the cloud structure and the precipitation forming mechanisms of the Typhoon storm. It is found that the ice phase microphysical processes are the key storm mechanisms in different periods. The melting graupel confirms that the rain is the most important mechanism. The intensity of the production of graupel varies in accordance with the Typhoon.

Online Monitoring Technology for Algae by Fluorescent Sensing Method

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 40-45. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 512 )
Water quality eutrophication and breakout of water bloom in lakes and reservoirs have already become a major environmental concern. To analyze the ecological mechanism of breakout of water bloom, to understand the generating and vanishing process of water bloom and to achieve an early warning of water bloom, the effective monitoring of the population structure of planktonic algae during breakout of water bloom is essential, which mainly includes species composition and quantitative variation of planktonic algae. Based on sensing method of fluorescence in vivo, embedded control technology and real-time data acquisition technology, this paper proposes a design of online fluorometer for algae. The fluorometer for algae can be used to measure the content of different spectral groups of algae (blue algae, green algae and brown algae) in vivo and in situ. The results of comparative experiments show that the measurement errors of blue algae, green algae and brown algae are less than 17.88%. Field experiments in Caohu show that fluorometer has a good stability. The fluorometer with a good performance would have further potential applications in environment monitoring, water bloom early-warning and evaluation of lake eutrophication.

The Mid-Yangtze Flood After the Commencement of the Three Gorges Project and the Countermeasures (II)

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 46-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1150 )
To relieve the serious threat of flood in mid-Yangtze after the commencement of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) as predicted in the first part of this paper, some representative measures of mitigation so far proposed are simulated and analyzed with the same model for mid-Yangtze river-net. Such measures as to cutoff the Paizhou bend (CPB), to raise the stage of flood diversion at Chenglingji (RSD) and to divert flood in south and north sides of Jingjiang reach (DNS) are all shown to be effective but not enough for the safety of the mid-Yangtze if being applied separately with conditions provided by TGP and the designed Flood Diversion Areas (FDA) approved by the central government. Based on a great number of computations for many scheme combinations, a comprehensive scheme that combines CPB and DNS with RSD as auxiliary operation measures is proposed, which is shown to be capable of protecting the mid-Yangtze against the flood of 1954 and having enough rooms to cope with certain uncertainties of river deformation that might be brought about by the trapping of sediments and flow regulations of the TGP and others.

Modeling of Inner Interlayer Prediction in Thick Oil Layer——with Velasquez Oilfield as an Example

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 56-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 431 )
The inner interlayers are the main causes for forming multi-layer reservoirs with strong heterogeneity, which control the remaining oil distribution. Velasquez oilfield is located in the central part of Magdalenda basin in Columbia, and the paleogene group G sandstone reservoirs are of braided channel deposition. Muddy interlayer and interlayer of physical property are developed in the G reservoirs in Velasquez oilfield. Muddy interlayer consists mainly of flood argillaceous sediments, with the porosity less than 5%, and the permeability less than 1×10-3μm2. The porosity of physical interlayer is less than 11.3%, and the permeability is less than 23.3×10-3μm2. Two models for interlayers are built in order to identify interlayers in the whole area and to carry out lateral correlation. According to their planar distributions, the interlayers in the study area are divided into the steady, sub-steady and stochastic types, and then their interwell distributions are predicted by using the methods of interwell correlation, lower limit of physical property control and conditional simulation, respectively, in order to build the interlayer 3D distribution model and provide foundations for predicting remaining oil distribution. The method enjoys the necessary accuracy for the high water-cut reservoir interlining.

Properties and Priority Method of Strong Consistent Interval Judgment Matrix

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 60-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 492 )
The properties of strong consistent interval judgment matrix in literatures are not well studied both at home and abroad, so the priority method research lacks a theoretical basis. The properties and priority problems of strong consistent interval judgment matrix are studied in this paper. First, some concepts including the interval judgment matrix, the strong consistent interval judgment matrix and the normalized interval vector are explained. Then, a linear programming model is used to derive the normalized interval weights from the strong consistent judgment matrix. On that basis, an equivalent condition of strong consistency for interval judgment matrix is put forward. A nonlinear programming model is developed to generate interval weights for the interval comparison matrix with satisfactory consistency. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed method, and it is shown that the nonlinear programming model can also be applyied to consistent interval judgment matrix and satisfactory consistent interval judgment matrix. The properties and the ranking method may further improve the consistency theories of interval judgment matrix.

Experimental Research About Force on a Conical a Probe Passing Through a Quasi-two-dimensional Granular Bed with a Constant Velocity

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 63-67. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 405 )
The movement of an intruder in a granular medium may result in interior reorganization of the force chain structure. The form of drag force experienced by the intruder reflects the macro effect of reorganization. By measuring the slowly-pushing force of the cone intruding vertically into a quasi-two-dimensional granular bed, the depth dependence of the vertical drag force in the granular medium is studied experimentally. It is found that the drag force curve has a concave-convex-concave transition with the increasing penetration depth and the drag force follows different depth dependence in different regimes. By studying the properties of two inflection points of the concave-convex-concave transition, it is shown that the front inflection point of the curve is the result of the volume effect of the intruder in the granular medium, and the rear inflection point of the curve is the result of the bottom boundary support. The depth of the front inflection point is independent of the packing height of the granular medium, however, the depth of the rear inflection point is linear with the packing height of the granular medium.

Oscillation and Non-oscillation Criteria for Second-order Dynamic Equation on Time Scales

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 68-71. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 488 )
In recent years, the dynamic equation theory not only finds important applications in such fields as physics, space satellite, etc, but also becomes an indispensable mathematical tool in such domains of natural and social sciences as economics, biology, control theory, etc. Moreover, oscillation and non-oscillation criterion is the key concern of qualitative study of the neutral dynamic equations, as have attracted much attention. In this paper, the oscillation for a class of second order nonlinear neutral delay dynamic equation on time scales is discussed. Using the fixed point theorem in Banach space, a new non-oscillation criterion for the equation is obtained by the generalized Riccati transformation, with the time scale theory and some necessary analytic techniques. In addition, some sufficient conditions for oscillation of the equation are proposed. These criteria can improve the restrictive conditions for the equation, and unify results about oscillation for delay differential equation and delay difference equation. Some results in the literature are improved and extended.

Application of Natural Neighbor Interpolation Method to Development of Materials State Equation Database

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 72-76. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 489 )
In view of the great amount of data, and the highly dispersed and irregular distribution characteristics of the materials state equation database and the special requirements for an interpolation method, a development scheme based on the natural neighbor interpolation method is proposed. Firstly, the basic principles of the natural neighbor interpolation method based on Delaunay triangular mesh and Voronoi diagram are discussed. Secondly, three interpolation functions, the linear interpolation, the Sibson interpolation and the non-Sibsonian interpolation are analyzed together with their function forms and interpolation formats in detail. Thirdly, the materials state equation database is developed through interpolation programs by this method and the interpolation results are compared with the database itself. Lastly, various characteristics of three interpolation functions, the computational efficiency and the time cost are discussed. Analysis and comparison show that the interpolation results are reasonable and the interpolation computation is very efficient. So this method can well be applied to the development of the materials state equation database.

Application of Inkjet Printing Technology in the Production of UHF Antennas

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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 77-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1167 )
This paper studies the application of inkjet printing technology in the production of UHF antennas, and the focuses are on the droplet spreading on the substrate. The structure and inductance of UHF antenna and the ink printing film thickness are analyzed theoretically, and on this basis factors affecting the droplet spreading are discussed. The droplet velocity and droplet size are two important factors, which are analyzed by numerical simulations and the VOF model. It is shown that these two factors should be carefully determined in order that the droplet can spread normally and the quality of UHF antenna can be ensured. A number of routines are proposed for controlling drop velocity and drop size. For example, when other conditions are fixed, in order to avoid the drop to rebound and splash or other undesirable phenomena, the drop speed should be as small as possible, of course, it should be in line with specific conditions. This paper provides some useful guidance for analyzing the parameters influentcing the droplet spreading, and for regulating and controlling parameters when the ink-jet printing technology is used in the production of UHF antennas.

Plant Recognition Method Based on Leaf Images

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 81-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 509 )
This paper proposes a plant automatic recognition method based on the leaf images, to be used in the computer-based automatic recognition system of the plant taxonomy. The color image is first transformed into a grey-level and a binary image in pre-processing including brightness correction, median filter and threshold segmentation. Six relative shape parameters and 5 texture parameters are then calculated, respectively, from the binary image and the grey-level image. The 6 shape parameters are the eccentricity, roundness, roundness index, direction angle, width and length ratio of the smallest rectangle that can cover the leaf, and short and long axes ratio of the best ellipse that can cover the leaf; and the five texture parameters are the second moment, contrast, correlation, entropy, moment deficit. Finally, an automatic recognition classifier based on RBF neural network is designed to determine which type of plant the leaf is from with the image of the leaf being used as a sample. Then, 60 images of leaf from 3 plants are used as samples to test the performance of the automatic recognition classifier. The average correct recognition rate reaches 70.83% when only the 6 shape parameters are used as the input data of the classifier, and it reaches 83.33% when both shape parameters and texture parameters are used as the input data of the classifier. The results show that the texture features can improve the average correct rate, and that the plant automatic recognition based on the leaf images is feasible.

Fractal Dimension of Vertisol's Particle Size Distribution in Zhangzhou Plain

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 86-90. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 521 )
The fractal dimension is an objective characteristic of many natural phenomena and things. This paper shows that the vertisol's particle-size distribution has the fractal characteristic. In terms of the different terrain and land use / land coverage, 22 soil samples from different profiles (0~20cm, 20~40cm, 40~60cm) were collected from different regions in Zhangzhou Plain. The variations of the fractal dimension of vertisol’s particle-size distribution in Zhangzhou Plain and the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the vertisol's properties were investigated. It is shown that the fractal dimension of the soil particle-size distribution (0~40cm) ranges from 2.756 to 3.002 for the 22 soil samples. The fractal dimension increases with the depth. In addition, the regression analysis indicates that the boundary between positive and negative correlations is 0.1mm. The fractal dimension of the soil particle-size distribution is negatively correlated with the amount of particles with diameter >0.1mm and positively correlated with the amount of particles with diameter <0.1mm. The fractal dimension increases with the increase of the grass cover ratio. Also, the fractal dimension varies with the terrain, among which the downslope has the highest dimension and the terrace has the lowest.

Application of Improved Matter Element Extension Evaluation Method in Road Landscape Evaluation

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 91-94. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 504 )
Landscape evaluation used to be mostly of qualitative and even subjective nature. An assessment of the landscape can not usualy reflect the overall safety level of a highway landscape. An improved matter element extension evaluation method is proposed. Based on the principle of matter element extension evaluation, a matter element analysis model is established, including twenty seven indexes to cover various aspects of the road landscape evaluation. The indexes, such as sight distance, topography, landscape color, climate, diversity of organisms, are selected from four areas: the sensitivity of highway landscape, landscape threshold, landscape value, environmental quality. The grade of the road landscape is determined through evaluating a large set of expansive data from Zhanghua Highway. The results show that the improved matter element extension evaluation method enjoys excellent objectivity and high evaluation accuracy without the limitation that the calculation cannot be proceeded when the measured data go beyond the controlled field, and it is an effective method of the road landscape evaluation with good application prospect.

Effect of Simiaoyong'an Decoction on Inflammation Reaction in Rabbit's Atherosclerosis Vulnerable Plaque

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 95-98. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 375 )
The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Simiaoyong'an Decoction (SYD) on Atherosclerosis (AS) vulnerable plaque. 40 Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups: 10 in the normal control group, and 30 in the experimental group to be established as the AS model by high fatty diet feeding, combined with immune injury at the 2nd week and femoral arterial balloon tearing at the 4th week. At the 8th week, 30 rabbits in the experimental group were randomly assigned to four groups: each 10 in the model group, the SYD group and the simvastatin group. The medication of SYD and simvastatin were given in the whole 16-week course. Levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and CRP were measured at the 8th, 16th and 24th weekend in experiment. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), HSP60 expression in aortic wall were measured at the end of experiment. The results show that compared with the model group, the levels of MCP-1, ICAM-1 are lower in the two treated groups at all time points after treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). TNF-α, NF-κB and HSP60 expression in aortic wall are lower after treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In overall, it is demonstrated that SYD could stabilize atherosclerosis vulnerable plaque by suppressing the inflammation reaction.

Exergy Analysis of the Building Envelope Energy Efficiency Retrofit Based on the Life Cycle Assessment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 99-103. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1144 )
This paper presents an exergy analysis combined with the life cycle assessment method to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the building envelope energy efficiency retrofit. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the building energy consumption can be transformed into exergy. The method only analyzes the production stage and the operation stage, which represent a higher impact in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact in the building life cycle. A typical case of the existing building envelope energy efficiency retrofit in Ningbo city is analyzed. The results show that it takes 15 years for the cumulative saved energy consumption in the operation stage to reach the embodied energy of the newly added insulation materials in the production stage. For CO2 emissions, it takes 16 years. The cumulative saved exergy consumption would be difficult to reach the embodied exergy consumption in the life span after retrofit. So the embodied energy and CO2 emissions of the newly added insulation materials in the production stage should not be neglected. For the existing old building, it should be prudent to take any retrofit measures; and the energy and exergy efficiency and environment impact of the retrofit measures should be considered as a whole in analysis.

Purification of Liquid Phase Silicon Dioxide from Reclaiming Tail Gas of Solar Polysilicon Production

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 104-107. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1234 )
Liquid phase silicon dioxide produced while reclaiming tail gas of solar polysilicon production by Siemens is not used in Asia Silicon industry (Qinghai), but directly put to landfill, which not only is a waste of energy and raw materials, but also pollutes the environment. Therefore, in view of energy conservation and environmental protection, the gas should be recycled. This paper studies the properties of liquid phase silicon dioxide produced while reclaiming tail gas of solar polysilicon production by Siemens in Asia Silicon Industry (Qinghai). It is shown that the major factors that influence the purity of silicon dioxide are the heating loss and the burning loss; in addition to an amount of water, the samples contain some amount of ash and volatile, coming mainly from the hydrolysis of silicon tetrachloride, as well as some silica-gel. The silica-gel will lose water and the product silicon dioxide powder when heated to a high temperature. When the silicon dioxide adsorbs a small amount of hydrolysis of silicon chloride on its surface, it will volatile when heated. With this kind of method one can get powders of 99.8% silicon dioxide. In the morphological observation, it can be seen that the particle size increases by agglomeration.
Reviews

Effects of Physical and Chemical Properties of Wheat Flour on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 108-112. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 436 )
Chinese Steamed Bread (CSB) is a traditional staple food in the north of China, which plays an important role in people's daily life. The quality of CSB mainly depends on the quality of wheat flour, which is in turn determined by the physical and chemical properties of wheat grain. This paper reviews the researches related with the qualities of wheat and CSB from abroad and China, especially, the physical and chemical properties of wheat grain, rheological properties of flour and their effects on the quality of CSB, where the relationship between the wheat cultivars and the products during CBS-making may be obtained, to provide some guidance for wheat breeding and CSB processing.

A Review Smart Grid Control Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 113-117. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 495 )
The role of smart grid control is discussed based on the goal of smart grid in this paper. The main features of smart grid, the content and main tasks of smart grid control are reviewed, with an analysis of some key technologies such as information technology, power electronics, energy storage and simulation technologies. Information technologies including optical fiber communications, WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks), WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network), and PLC are the foundation for the dynamic real-time sensing and controlling of power system. Stream media technology, GIS and GPS will also find their uses in future smart grids. Power electronics, which combine the semiconductor device, circuit topologies and system control technologies, will play key roles in the development of renewable generation, power flow control, power system stability control and power quality control. Energy storage is the fundamental strategy for energy balancing and controlling. Potential energy storage techniques for smart grid are discussed in the paper. Simulation and testing technologies will also be developed at the same time with the development of smart grid. Finally, the relationship between the above key technologies and smart grid control and the prospect of power grid in the future are highlighted.

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 118-118. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 326 )
Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 120-121. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 658 )
主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 127-127. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 320 )
走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 130-134. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 387 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (23): 135-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 298 )

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