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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0606
10 June 2006

Articles
Reviews

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 314 )

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 31-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 303 )
能源问题研究专题

Polycrystalline Silicon Bottleneck Confronting Photovoltaic Industry and the Countermeasures

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 5-7. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 472 )
The actual conditions of the photovoltaic industry in the world as well as China were described. At the present time, the solar cells based on bulk crystalline silicon dominate the photovoltaic market. Silicon demand from photovoltaic application is increasing at unprecedented rates. However, since 2004 the global solar cell industry has been experiencing a severe polysilicon shortfall. The situation is even more serious in China and the polysilicon shortage has become the bottleneck of China's photovoltaic industry. In order to get rid of the trouble confronting the photovoltaic industry, the following tasks should be done: ① to complete the construction of polycrystalline silicon plants being still in construction in China; ② to improve the technologies of polysilicon production in order to reduce the energy, metallurgical silicon, chlorine and hydrogen consumption. The polysilicon production cost should be reduced and gain an advance in the competition. The processes should be envir...更多onment friendly. In a long run, it is expected that fluid bed process will be adopted by a number of manufacturers to supply the photovoltaic industry. There is a big potential in switching over to thin film technology including amorphous silicon, microcrystalline silicon, and compound semiconductor films. However, the challenges of improving performance of the thin film products and scaling up production lie ahead.

On the Development of Solar Cell and Polycrystalline Silicon Industry in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 8-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 557 )
In this paper the recent development status of solar photovoltaic industry in the world is reviewed. According to the domestic photovoltaic development, several problems of policies, technologies and applications are pointed out. Finally, opinions and suggestions related to the key technologies of solar cell and polycrystalline silicon feedstock are showed.

Research Progress of Solid State Dye-sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 11-15. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1207 )
Solid state dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC) have been intensively researched recently. In our group, a series of solid state polymer electrolytes of DSSCs have been designed and synthesized by introducing various functional groups, such as flexible chains, latent chemically cross-linking groups and ionic liquid group. Combining with the structural optimization of TiO2 nanocrystalline thin film electrodes and counter electrodes based on the theoretical simulation of that the efficiency of light absorption can be improved by light scattering and confinement, and the diffusion and penetration of polymer electrolyte can be enhanced by using TiO2 film with larger porosity, solid state DSSCs with high photo-electric energy conversion efficiency have been obtained.

Development Trend of Nuclear Energy in the World

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 15-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
With the rising prices of oil and natural gas, and under the emission reduction demand of green house gas (GHG), the nuclear energy is causing wide concern. At the same time, some of the nuclear plants and nuclear facilities in Europe and America are out of decommission continuously, which provides not only the excuses to the nuclear opposition camp, but also the opportunities of nuclear development under the conditions of proper disposal of nuclear waste. This paper summarizes the current status and features of nuclear energy utilization, the research of nuclear energy technologies which includes nuclear technologies of Gen III and Gen IV, the nuclear fusion and the nuclear fuel cycle, etc.. The nuclear future prospect is also provided, with suggestions to China nuclear development.

Efficiency Estimation of Nuclear Hydrogen Production

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 18-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 672 )
The production of hydrogen in a large scale with clean, CO2 free and efficient way is the fundamental of hydrogen economy. However, current hydrogen production methods can not meet these demands. As a promising massive way, nuclear hydrogen production is being extensively investigated across the world. The efficiencies of hydrogen production with nuclear energy as the primary energy supplier by various processes, including high temperature steam electrolysis(HTSE) and iodine sulfur(IS) thermochemical process, are estimated and compared with that of industrial methods, such as SMR and traditional electrolysis. Results show that the estimated hydrogen production efficiencies of IS cycle and HTST are both above 50%, which is remarkably higher than the overall conversion efficiency from heat to electricity and to hydrogen.

Chinese Nuclear Power Development and Related Fuel Cycle Scenarios

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 22-25. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 457 )
China has proposed the guideline to boost the construction of nuclear power plant. Nuclear power capacity is expected to reach the scale of 40 GWe in the year 2020. To meet the domestic energy demand, nuclear power will keep growing after 2020. Nuclear fuel cycle system is essential for the development of Chinese nuclear power. In this paper, nuclear fuel cycle issues, including the amount of natural uranium resource, separative work and nuclear fuel for PWR power plant, together with spent fuels, separated plutonium and radioactive waste are studied. The influences of spent fuel reprocessing and separated plutonium recycling on the uranium resource demand and accumulated radioactive waste are discussed.

Bio-oil Fuel Production from Micro Algae by Thermochemical Liquefaction

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 26-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 525 )
The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary. Micro algae are of the most common forms of renewable energy. With the advanced genetic technology and thermochemical liquefaction process, bio-oil fuel production from micro algae is an effective approach to solve the energy crisis in future.
Articles

Design Consideration of On-line Burnup Measurement System for High Temperature Gas-cooling Reactor: Influence of Cooling Time for Fuel Sphere on Burnup Measurement

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 28-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 498 )
Fuel spheres of the pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor were non-destructively monitored on-line to ensure whether they reach their end-of-life burnup limit (80GWD/MTU).The core inventory Code (KORIGEN) and Monte-Carlo Code (MCNP4A) was used to simulate the burnup of fuel sphere and the response of HPGe detector, respectively. Uncertainty of burnup measurement was studied under different burnup values and cooling times. If indicator fissile nuclide of burnup measurement is 137Cs and counting statistical certainty of 5% for the bunrnup measurement system is met,the cooling time of the fuel shpere will be more than 6 d and the time of burnup measurement will be more than 15 s after the simulation results of the HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer for the irradiated fuel spheres are analyzed .

Measures against Problems in the Mid-Yangtze after the Completion of the Three Gorges Project (TGP)

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 32-35. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 511 )
In complement to the previous paper on the problems might be resulted from the TGP, this paper proposed some measures and suggestions with respect to structural works and management for the mid-Yangtze River for further investigations.

Influence of Dissolved Oxygen on Release of Manganese from Sediment in Municipal Drinking Water Reservoir

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 36-38. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 476 )
Taking Xidayang reservoir in Tang Xian of Baoding of Hebei province as an example, the characteristics of manganese release from municipal drinking water resource are experimentally studied. The influence rule of dissolved oxygen on the manganese release is obtained. This paper analyzes manganese pollution sources and proposes solutions. These results supply theoretical basis for adjustment of economic structure of residents living near the municipal drinking water resource.

Study of Preparation of New Photocatalyst TaON and Splitting Water into H2 under Visible Light

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 38-41. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 464 )
A new kind of photocatalyst, TaON, was prepared by nitridation of solid phase, Ta2O5, at high temperature. The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, XPS and UV-VIS. The best preparation condition was determined. The UV-VIS analysis proved that the response area of the sample was shifted to the visible light area. And it has shown the function of response to the visible light. In addition, the investigation that water was split into H2 by photocatalytic reaction with TaON as photocatalyst and methanol as electron donors under the irradiation of xenon lamp (?姿≥420 nm) was made. The influence of factors such as the amount of loading noble metal on the surface of the photocatalyst, the ratio of electron donors to water in the solution and the time of reaction to the photocatalytic activity was also investigated in the paper. The results demonstrated that TaON showed high photocatalytic activity in the experiment condition that the loading amount of Ru was 0.4 wt%,the ratio of electro...更多n donors to water in the solution was 30%, the time of reaction was 4 h and the rate of hydrogen evolution was 0.21 mmol/h.

Calculation and Analysis of Tidal Current of Huangmao Sea

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 42-44. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 514 )
Combining with the topography of Huangmao Sea, the Model of Coastal and Ocean Engineering is used in tidal current for Huangmao Sea in this paper. The method of combining curvilinear orthogonal coordinates in the horizontal direction with Sigma mapping coordinates in the vertical direction is used. The comparison between the model results and field data indicates that this model is satisfied to simulate the tidal current field of Huamgmao Sea and it can be applied to calculate the tidal current of estuaries or coastal ocean.

Research of the Language of Special Information's Description in Grid GIS

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 45-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 438 )
In the system of grid GIS, it is needed for data, information, operation each other and distributing in various places a kind standard language in order to communicate. Grid Geographic Markup Language is the key technology. Here we present researches of the GridGML on the base of XML technology, grid system structure, the standard of GML3 and OGC. A kind of idea of designing GridGML is put forward in this paper.

Spinal Accessory Nerve Transfer for the Repair of Suprascapular Nerve to Restore Shoulder Abduction through Dorsal-approach:A Clinical Study

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 48-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
To introduce the designed dorsal-approach spinal accessory nerve transfer for the repair of suprascapular nerve to restore the shoulder abduction. 11 patients with brachial plexus injury were treated through the designed dorsal-approach. The patients were followed-up to evaluate the shoulder abduction recovery, and compare the changes of trapezius muscle function. Success of the dorsal-approach procedure in our series of the 11 patients confirmed that the dorsal-approach accessory nerve transfer is a safe and reliable procedure. The postoperative effect is confirmed and the recovery is earlier than that of the conventional; moreover, the upper portion function of trapezius can be reserved and the restored shoulder abduction are closer to the normal.

Study of Allelopathy in Strawberry Replanting Disease

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 52-54. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1319 )
Replanting disease is a serious obstacle for sustainable development of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) at present. Effect of auto-toxicoid root exudates and decomposing liquids on activities of 2,3,5-Tripheyl Tetrazolium Chloride(TTC) reduction, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), and pathogeny of strawberry root were studied. The results showed that allelopathy of root exudates and decomposing liquids played an important role in strawberry replanting disease. Owing to the allelopathy, activities of TTC reduction and SOD of root were decreased, growth and development of strawberry seedlings could be vigor less, root resistance to soil-borne disease would decline, and colony growth and spore germinition were promoted by the allelopathy. So the replanting disease of strawberry became more and more serious.
Reviews

Advances in Development and Application of Centrifugal Extractors in Nuclear Industry

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 55-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 490 )
Compared with mixer-settlers and pulsed columns, centrifugal extractors, favored by the nuclear industry, have many advantages and a good prospect in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in future. Both developments and applications of centrifugal extractors in the nuclear industry are reviewed. The developing direction of centrifugal extractors in the nuclear industry is also discussed.
研究报告

Study of Forest Resources Assets' Assessment Management

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 58-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 486 )
There are a series of problems in the course of forest resources assets' assessment management, and people must do their best to strengthen the management. In order to improve the level of assets' assessment control, people must set up and perfect correlative law and regulation as soon as possible, and in the same time people should reinforce assessment item management and assessment clients' management, assessment organization and its employees' control also should be enhanced too, and the professional management pattern must be transit in the end. All these supervisory measures would accelerate the development at a steady pace.

Analyses of Situation, Direction and Tasks of Economic and Technological Areas in the New-era in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 63-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 457 )
As special types of economic-function area, economic and technological areas(ETAs) play significant roles in the process of opening-up, reform and economic development of China, but hindering factors and problems are exist as well. Globalization from external perspectives as well as construction of well-off society from internal perspectives will result in unprecedented opportunities and challenges to the sustainable growth of ETAs in the new-era in China. It is extraordinarily important to identify direction and function of ETAs in the long term, and, on this basis, put forward key tasks faced by ETAs in the near future.

The Performance of the National Public Finance on Agriculture and the Path Choice

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 67-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 444 )
Analyzed positively the poor performance of public finance on agriculture from macro-view, medium-view and micro-view, this paper probed into the deep reasons that influence the performance of public finance on agriculture from national budget, public finance consciousness, government game and policy-matching. Finally, it pointed out the potential choice for improving the performance of national public finance on agriculture.

Impact of Demand Variance on Selecting Strategy of Supply ChainIntegration

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 72-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 475 )
Researchers of supply chain management have agreed on adopting supply chain integration to damp the bullwhip effect and improve the efficiency of supply chain. Although the development of Internet has provided support for supply chain integration technology, there are still some problems like profit division which make the implement of fully integrated supply chain impossible or have too high cost. This paper, based on the sub-strategy of the fully integrated supply chain, presents different models of supply chain integration, compares and analyzes the simulation results of efficiency on different demand variance by ways of system dynamics methodology. The results show that, company should select different sub-strategy according to different demand variance in the market to realize the best partly integrated supply chain and improve the efficiency of the whole supply chain when the realization of fully integrated supply chain is impossible.
科技评论

Analysis and Study of the Status Quo of Scientific and Technological Periodicals in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 76-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 525 )
According to the definition of "scientific and technological periodical", the total number of scientific and technological periodicals in China is 4 758 by the end of Feb., 2005. In this paper, the development of scientific and technological periodicals in China is briefly reviewed; moreover, statistical analyses based on the journals' types, disciplines, regions, establishment years, publishing languages, publishing intervals, sponsors, publishing status and overall qualities are given to outline the status quo.

A Telemonitoring System Based on Broadband Satellite System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 91-93. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 486 )
The technical development of video monitoring system is reviewed firstly in this paper. And advanced technologies in broadband satellite system are discussed. Finally, a satellite telemonitoring system made of it and network video monitoring system are presented in details.
新技术介绍

Analysis of Rankings and Citation Impact of Chinese Science & Technology Papers in the World

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 81-85. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (766 KB)  ( 251 )
Abstract ( 426 )
This paper describes the number of Chinese science and technology papers indxed by SCI, as well as their rankings and citation impact in the world, and compares them with that of some countries/regions.
学术争鸣

Fasciology: A New Theory on the Human Self-supervision and Control System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 85-89. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 531 )
Modern biology considers a cell as a basic functional unit of human being, and then the cells with similar function organize a tissue; furthermore, different tissues organize an organ with a certain shape and function; in the end, several organs organize as a functional system. It is well known that there are nine functional systems in human being, namely, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, circulatory, motor, sensory organ, nervous and endocrinal systems. Now we put forward a new system, which is the 10th functional system-human self-supervision and control system. The study of digital human body showed that there are some special imaging structures of the fascia and connective tissues, including some lines and points, exist in the human body. Then, we found the distribution of these lines and points have close relationship with that of traditional meridian and acu-points system. Meridian and acu-points system is a functional system, and how about the fascia and connective...更多 tissues? The above result was analyzed combined with the theories of tridermic principle of embryonic development, developmental biology and modern medical biology. The mesoblastic mesenchyme differentiates the organs and systems. After that, the rest part of the mesenchyme forms the fascia and connective network. The fascia and connective system, based on the stem cells, provides cellular storage and supply for the reproduction of the other functional cells. In the mean time, the system takes part in the supervision of the internal circumstance and the regulation of the functional state of the body through nervous and endocrinal systems. Hence, it is named the "human self-supervision and control system", and the theory on the new system is named "fasciology". The study of fasciology opens a new field in biology by putting forward the new functional system. And the study also gives a biological explain for the mechanism of acupuncture, meridians and acu-points. Besides, the study can provide some new thoughts on inviting new methods and techniques for the difficulty and complicated diseases, such as developmental defect, senility and cancers.
科学家之声

Proposal on Normalizing Terminology of Management Science and Systems Science

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0606): 90-91. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 470 )

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