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   Science & Technology Review
2005, Vol.23, No. 0508
10 August 2005

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Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 272 )

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 34-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 307 )
Exclusive

Scientific and Technological Problems of Digitalization of Microfluids (PartI):Concepts, Methods and Results

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 4-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 451 )
We classify the micro systems into two categories, the micro over-all systems and the micro characteristic ones, in the former theover-all sizes must be small and in the latter other and more intrinsic micro characteristics are emphasized. By comparing them, we found thatthe latter are more universal and that smaller over-all sizes do not lead to better intrinsic characteristics in most cases. We proposed that threemicro characteristics, the micro flowing, micro structure and micro comprehensive ones, should be considered for inner flowing under very lowReynolds number Re, which occurs often in fine-long conduits and in micro substance transport and micro heat transfer. We studied the conceptof reasonable flowing form for fluids that flow in micro systems or with very low velocities, and put forward the idea that the flowing pulsesequences, which are predictable and controllable and which are produced artificially, may become the key of dealing with the most intrinsicdifficulty in the field of microfluidic systems that micro flowing readily loses its normality. The existent methods were evaluated of influencing,that is, driving, controlling or disturbing, micro fluids according to the three micro characteristics mentioned above, and the differences betweenour digitalization of microfluids and Kim’s digital microfluidic circuits were pointed put. Then we advanced the pulse influencing method,which is based on pulse inertia force, and its devices. Experimental results showed that the micro characteristics are satisfactory in manyrespects: the flowing normality holds in a wide frequency range, the substance transport resolution reaches the fL order, the minimum flow rateis 3 pL/min, the flowing resistance is minimized especially for fine-long conduits, digital fluidic flowing is realized both in micro conduits andin micro jet streams, some digital microfluidic components with neither micro movable parts nor embedded micro electric circuits have beenmade, the method is suitable universally for ordinary liquid and solid powder driving, controlling and disturbing purposes, no special propertiesof liquids and solid powders are required, and, finally, higher reliability, productivity and automaticity have been reached.

Preparation and Assemble of One-dimensional Nanostructure Materials

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 10-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 611 )
One-dimensional nanomaterials become a focus in chemical,physical,materialand bionomical fields, largely is due to their wide applications in areas of nanoelectronics,nanooptoelectronics, high-density storage and scanning probe microscope. The article mainlyillustrates the preparation and assemble strategies of one-dimensional nanomaterials and brieflysummarizes their recent progress, properties and applications.

The Sorting and Latest Applications of Historical Climate Documentary Records of China

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 17-19. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 507 )
Herein we briefly introduce methods and courses of gleaning, correcting andsorting the historical climate records of China as well as the contents and features of “ACompendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 years”. Also, we brieflyintroduce the development of the Retrieval System of Chinese Historical Climate Records aswell as new advances in the study on meteorological disasters, extreme climate events andclassified climate-disaster chronicles for the country.

Radar Target Recognition:A Key Technology for Development of Intelligent Weapons

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 20-23. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 552 )
As a key technology for development of intelligent weapon systems, radar target recognition technology would play an importantrole in the joint informed war in future. The technical development of radar target recognition is reviewed firstly in this paper, then sometechnical advancement and achievements related to radar target recognition are presented in details, finally, the technical trends in the radartarget recognition are summarized.
Articles

Study on Relationship between Types of Mei-yu in Zhejiang Province and Changes in Global Circulation in Northern Hemisphere

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 24-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 463 )
The geographic distribution of the precipitation types during the Mei-yu period in Zhejiang Province from 1971 to 1999 isanalyzed, and the characteristics of each previous Mei-yu precipitation type's changes at 500 hPa height field are studied , which finds the basicrelationship between each Mei-yu precipitation type and some foreboding factors of the global circulation in each year. The results showed thatthe different and same characteristics of the previous global circulation's changes in winter and spring are the important reasons, which result inthe Mei-yu precipitation types' respective characteristics. By analyzing some key factors dominating in earlier global circulation in three Mei-yu precipitation types, it is found that the positive or negative abnormities are the most pronounced premonitors which lead less or moreprecipitation in the northern part of Zhejiang Province during the Mei-yu period .On the other hand, it is one of the significant criterions that theextensity of the negative anomaly zone from southern Asia to the western Pacific in spring, which might predict the precipitation amount of Mei-yu in the southwestern Zhejiang Province .

Equitable Total Chromatic Number of Mycielski Graphs of Two Classes of Graphs

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 29-30. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 487 )
Let G be a simple graph. The vertices and edges of G are called the elements of G. For a coloring of the elements of G, if any two adjacent or incident elements of G have different colors, then it is called the proper total coloring of G. The equitable total coloring of a graph G is the proper total coloring such that the numbers of elements in any two color classes differ by at most one. The equitable total chromatic number is the smallest integer k such that G has an equitable total k-coloring. In this paper, we determine the equitable total chromatic number of Mycielski graphs of wheels and fans.

A Preliminary Study on Transgenic Mouse Model of Human Lactoperoxidase

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 31-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 516 )
Human Lactoperoxidase gene (hLPO) has been cloned into pBC1 to construct pBC1-hLPO specialized expression vector in mammary glands. Human LPO gene was assembled by two gene fragments, which are 3 kilo base pairs in length and 27 kilo base pairs long respectively. The shorter one was amplified by long-distance PCR and the other was cut down by restriction AgeI, both based on the donor of PAC RP5-1171I10 plasmid that contains hLPO gene. Here, We established the transgenic mouse model by microinjection into fertilized eggs, and then obtained 5 transgenic mice (4male, 1female) out of 28 descendants, identified by PCR and Southern blot. The integration rate is 17.86%, and lactoperoxidase expression levels were determined by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and Western blot. The hLPO recombinant protein band is not obvious as the antibodies are not very specific.

Characteristics of Fire Distribution in Huludao City and Its Enlightenment to City Fire Danger Analysis

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 35-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 467 )
Fire is one of the main disasters in cities and towns. Study on the dynamics of city fires concerns the safety of human lives and properties. In this paper, the distribution of city fires is investigated, as well as the relation between fire frequency and weather. The frequency-size distribution and frequency-interval distribution of city fires are found to satisfy power-law relation, suggesting that there is connection between large and small fires and large fire frequency can be predicted with that of small fire. The correlation between fire frequency and weather parameters such as temperature and humidity is also studied. It is shown that fire frequency changes with these weather parameters, indicating that city fire frequency can be forecasted with weather parameters. The results are expected to reveal the global, complex characteristics of city fires, that is, the dynamics of city fire system. The study is also an approach to compose city fire danger rating method, just like the existent forest fire danger rating method

Study on the Basic Attributes of the Target Detection and a General Target Detecting Equation

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 38-41. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 428 )
Based on the basic detection theory and focused on the target detection, the main philosophical attributes, the general engineering properties and the specialties of the modern target detection are discussed. In accordance with the system theoretical viewpoint, the systematic concept of the target detection is expounded and a general target detecting equation is set up. Taken three typical target- detecting systems as an example separately, which includes Doppler radio detector, laser detector and capacitance detector, their application analyses are made

Study on Green Project Management Assessment (GPMA)

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 42-46. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1198 )
Based on the dissemination of sustainable development concept, there is a growing concern on environmental impacts resulted from kinds of project management process. This trend makes the implementation of "Green Project Management" become an important research subject. For studying the degree of "Green" in project management process, this paper put forward the concept of "Green Project Management Assessment (GPMA)". GPMA serves as an assessment tool for project management process in measuring the environmental performance, analyzing, foreseeing the performance trend as well as providing a consistent basis for comparisons and environmental benchmarking among kinds of projects.

Study and Application of Hydrocarbon Isomerization

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 46-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 448 )
By studying of molecular composition and the thermodynamics equilibrium, it is found that isomerization of hydrocarbon is benefit to offset the octane loss due to olefin saturation during FCC gasoline hydrotreating process. The affect of molecular sieve structure, surface modification and the type of metal on heptane isomerization was studied. The isomer selectivity is affected by two sides' factors. The first one is channel feature of molecular sieve, including pore diameter, pore structure, etc., and the second one is the matching of acid and metal active sites. Isomerization could be performed on the internal and external surface of molecular sieve simultaneously. The external surface is the main active position when reaction is carried out at low temperature. The internal surface becomes major only when the temperature increases. For medium pore molecular sieve, external surface may be the cracking position. When the metal center and acid center maintain suitable ratio and quite less distance, the intermediate products could be hydrogenated very quickly, and reduced the secondary cracking effectively. The developed catalyst depending on such concepts has been used in commercial unit and shows good performance.

Using Science for HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 52-55. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (367 KB)  ( 465 )
Abstract ( 488 )
This paper reviews potential issues faced when strategies such as HIV testing and surveillance, notification of HIV infected individuals and their sexual partners, knowledge level change and behavior intervention, health examine and certificates for sex workers, social management of HIV infected individuals being used in practices. We compares anonymous versus real name testing strategies, whether or not notifying spouse of HIV infected individuals, understanding the difference between knowledge change and behavioral change, whether or not control HIV by issuing health certificate for sex workers and putting all HIV infected individuals in one place. Sciences should be used in each of these prevention measures in order to be more effectively in reducing the AIDS epidemic.
实验技术

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 60-61. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 460 )
"Hangyi-2" is a new tomato variety, which is bred from seeds of Russian selfing line MNP-1 carried by Russian MIR space station. Compared with the ground control, the segment of the first inflorescence of "Hangyi-2" is less, per fruit weight of "Hangyi-2" is increased, fruit shape of "Hangyi-2" become oblate, blooming period and fruit ripe period of "Hangyi-2" become advance, and the content of dry matter in fruit of "Hangyi-2" increases. Growth and bearing habit of "Hangyi-2" is characteristic of consistency and stability.
Reviews

Community Finding in Complex Networks--Theory and Applications

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 62-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 545 )
Complex networks are abstracted from complex systems, some properties of which such as small-world characteristics, scale-free characteristics and clustering are already thoroughly researched. As illustrated in lots of literatures, the existence of community structures in complex networks and how to find such communities effectively are focus of many recent researches in the branch of complex networks. This paper is intended as an overview of concepts, theories, algorithms and applications concerned with community finding.

Left-handed Materials

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 67-70. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (602 KB)  ( 321 )
Abstract ( 511 )
Left-handed materials (LHM) have simultaneous negative dielectric and magnetic constants, therefore negative refractive index, propagation of electromagnetic wave inside of a LHM is fundamentally different from its counterpart in classical material. We present a brief review on this new material, focus is placed on its basic property, design and fabrication.

Theory and Key Technology of Updating Geospatial Database Based on Multiresource Spatial Data

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 71-74. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 513 )
Integration and updating of geospatial data is a key problem in Geomatics. Conflation and integration computer environment of multi-scale spatial data are valid implement technology of spatial data integration. The unified information service platform of multi-resource spatial data is an effective means to get spatial information service. Using satellite image data and applying GIS spatial objects generalization technology to update spatial database are effective approaches. In this paper, the theory and technology of spatial data integration and updating are throughly analyzed, and we also present that integration of geospatial data enhances the service ability of spatial database, and the updating upgrade the value of geospatial information service.

Progresses of HIV/AIDS Vaccine Research

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0508): 75-79. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (358 KB)  ( 409 )
Abstract ( 506 )
There are about 35 HIV vaccine candidates around the world entered into early phase of clinical trial at the beginning of 2005. The selected antigens usually could induce both cellular and humoral immune response. Currently the HIV vaccine candidates include traditional vaccine (killed or attenuated vaccine), peptide, protein subunit, DNA vaccine and live vectorial vaccine. The immunization strategies were developed to increase the immunogenicity through antigen priming/boosting, and mucosa immunization. There are both modification, immune adjuvant co-inoculation, numerous opportunities and challenges in the field of Chinese HIV vaccine research, therefore, we should work closely and effectively to facilitate HIV vaccine development.

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