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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 19
13 October 2016

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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 129 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 7-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 12-12.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 176-176.
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Abstract ( 164 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 232 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 172 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 99 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 13-13.
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Abstract ( 82 )
Special lssues

Wood and human civilization

LUO Jianju
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 14-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.001
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Abstract ( 301 )
From where comes the human civilization and to where it goes? This is both a serious philosophical proposition and a social issue for every person on the earth to pay attention to. In the present paper, the existence of the prehistoric "wood age" is discussed firstly, then the contributions of wood to the Natural Sciences and the Humane Studies are comprehensively analyzed, and finally, the three global problems of food, energy and environment for the mankind are discussed at the angle of "wood". From the mankind development process, the tool formation conditions and the related other historical evidences, it is concluded that the existence of the prehistoric "wood age" is an objective fact, and the mankind had experienced a very long "wood age" before entering into the stone age. Wood has companied our human activities for the longest time, and accordingly, the activities of human beings related with wood should be the most widespread, and wood has greatly contributed to the formation and the development of the natural sciences and the humane studies. Drawing lessons from the past history, wood science and technology could be expected to be possible ways to solve the present food, energy and environment problems.

Progress in the preparation and application of thermo- and pH-responsive polymer membranes

JIANG Ping, WU Yiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 22-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.002
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Abstract ( 214 )
The environmental responsive intelligent polymer membrane has broad prospects in the fields of material separation, control and release. In this paper, the preparation methods and applications of the thermo- and pH-responsive polymer membranes are reviewed, and the construction method, the structure activity relationship and the response mechanism of the non-polar and self-support thermo- and pH-responsive polymers are discussed.

Bio-inspired preparation of durable superhydrophobic bamboo surface with high conductivity

LI Jingpeng, CHEN Yuhe, WU Zaixing, BAO Yongjie, JIN Chunde
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 31-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.003
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Abstract ( 228 )
The silver nanoparticles are successfully deposited in situ onto the surface of the bamboo through the silver mirror reaction, which makes the intrinsically insulating bamboo conductive. With a further modification by the fluoroalkylsilane(FAS-17), the bamboo timber covered by Ag nanoparticles shows the superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 155° and a sliding angle less than 10°. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the coating on the surface of bamboo is only composed of silver crystals. The scanning electron microscope studies reveal that the coatings possess two dimensional hierarchical structures comprising of the submicron scale papilla and the nano scale granules. The synergistic effect of the submicro/nano binary structure and the low surface energy layer is responsible for the superhydrophobicity of the bamboo surface. Moreover, the study of the stability and the durability of the superhydrophobic bamboo shows that the modified bamboo has a durable superhydrophobic property even under the corrosive solutions including the acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo keeps its superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

Photoresponsive behavior of sheet-like nanostructures of tungsten trioxide particles grown on wood surfaces

HUI Bin, LI Guoliang, LI Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 36-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.004
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Abstract ( 183 )
The tungsten trioxide with sheet-like nanostructures is grown on wood surfaces via a simple low-temperature hydrothermal method with ethanol as an inducer. The photoresponsive functions of the WO3/wood are discussed. The morphologies, the phase structure, the ultraviolet(UV) absorption, the photoresponse and the thermal stability are characterized by using the scanning electron microscopy(SEM), the X-ray diffraction(XRD), the ultraviolet-visible(UV-vis) light, the color difference meter and the thermogravimetry(TG) analysis, respectively, and the hydrophobic property is also measured. The SEM results show that the WO3 nanosheets are uniformly grown on the wood surfaces. The XRD results further reveal that the WO3 is highly crystallized with a hexagonal structure. The UV-vis analysis shows that the obtained sample sees a remarkable blue shift compared with the pristine wood. The photoresponsive tests show that the sample has an obvious photochromic function under the UV light irradiation. The TG analysis shows that the WO3 coatings can restrain the degradation of the wood components. In addition, the composite possesses the superhydrophobic property through the octadecyltrichlorosilane(OTS) treatment.

Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanofiber in tunable chiral arrangement

QING Yan, WANG Lijun, WU Yiqiang, TIAN Cuihua, YI Jianan, LI Lei, HUANG Yuanxin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.005
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Abstract ( 174 )
The cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) of uniform size are prepared by the high-pressure homogenization coupled with the sulfuric acid hydrolysis pretreatments in this paper. The CNC suspension is self-assembled to form a unique chiral arrangement with the ultrasonic treatment. The self-assembled CNC film is shaped further to possess novel structural color characteristics. The size and the morphology of the prepared CNCs are determined by the transmission electron microscope(TEM) and the scanning electron microscope(SEM). The CNCs are rod-like mostly and fully separated in suspension with highly uniform size, and possess the structural basis to form the chiral arrangement. From the surface potential, the sticky flow characteristics and the polarization characteristics, it is shown that at a higher sulfuric acid concentration, the zeta potential value and the viscosity of the CNC suspension are increased, which makes it easier to form the chiral arrangement. Further studies conclusively show that the CNCs are liable to self-assemble into the chiral arrangement after the ultrasonic treatment to exhibit excellent structural color characteristics.

Bionic magnetotaxis of wood and its superhydrophobic properties

YAO Qiufang, CHEN Yipeng, QIAN Temeng, LI Song, JIN Chunde, SUN Qingfeng
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 46-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.006
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Abstract ( 250 )
The magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are successfully deposited on the surface of the wood via a chemical co-precipitation method with Fe3+ and Fe2+ salts as precursors at the room temperature and with a modification, which show good hydrophobic properties. The scanning electron microscopy(SEM), the X-ray diffraction(XRD), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), and the vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) are employed to characterize the features of the grown magnetic nanoparticles on the surface of the wood. The SEM images show that the shape of magnetic particles is granular. The XRD spectrum shows that the γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with good crystalline are successfully grown on the wood surface. The magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles display good superparamagnetic behavior and are chemically bonded to the bamboo surface through the combination of the hydrogen groups. After modified, the magnetic wood material has good superhydrophobic properties.

Fabrication and properties of superhydrophobic magnetic cellulosebased particles

HUANG Liulian, LIN Xinxing, ZHOU Xingman, WU Hui, CAO Shilin, CHEN Lihui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 50-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.007
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Abstract ( 436 )
This paper presents the preparation of superhydrophobic magnetic cellulose-based particles by using the cellulose as the raw material. The bamboo pulp is dissolved by the NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and the cellulose particles are regenerated in the water. The superhydrophobic magnetic cellulose particles are obtained by modifying the magnetic cellulose particles with the noctadecyltrimethoxysilane(ODTMS). The morphology, the chemical structure and the thermal stability of the modified cellulose particles are analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy(SEM), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and the thermogravimetry(TG), respectively. The modified-cellulose particles are superhydrophobic and magnetically responsive. Its water contact angle is 151.2°. The modified-cellulose particles can encapsulate the water and the glycerol droplets to form stable liquid marbles.

Physiological drying of standing trunk based on transpiration

ZHOU Zhixin, WANG Ximing
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 54-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.008
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Abstract ( 200 )
The transpiration of leaves on trunk can remove the water in the trunk. In this paper, based on the leaf transpiration theory, the physiological drying of the populus alba standing trunk is achieved. The results show that for the populous alba with sapwood cutting and bark peeling, the physiological drying of the standing trunk can be achieved. The final moisture content of the sapwood can reach about 20%, and the heartwood content can reach about 29%.

Preparation and photocatalysis of recyclable bamboo cellulose/titanium dioxide composites

ZHENG Huanhuan, SUN Chunhui, QIAN Temeng, JIN Chunde
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 59-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.009
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Abstract ( 248 )
The TiO2/cellulose composites were successfully fabricated by in situ synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles in the regenerated bamboo cellulose fibers using the ammonium fluoride titanate and boric acid mixture. The catalytic degradation performance of composites on the methyl orange solution was studied by ultraviolet light source. The structure and properties of the samples were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results show that a strong interaction between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose and TiO2 nanoparticles through hydrogen bond generated immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on the cellulose surface. The absorption peaks at 528 cm-1 were assigned to the O-Ti-O stretching, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation ratio of methyl orange solution was comparable to the pure TiO2 power, up to 95.5% under UV light for 60 min. Moreover, it could degrade of methyl orange 5 times over and over again, leading to a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the fields of sewage treatment.

Effects of coupling agents on the properties of rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites

ZHENG Feng, WANG Yanshan, SUN Yingying, WEN Yueqin, YANG Wenbin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 64-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.010
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Abstract ( 189 )
In order to investigate the effects of three coupling agents(MAPE, YB-510, KH-560) on the luminescence property, the mechanical property and the thermal stability of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites, the fluorescence spectrophotometer, the electronic universal testing machine, the pendulum impact tester and the thermogravimetric analyzer are employed, in addition, the tensile fracture microstructures of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites are observed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM). The results show that the three coupling agents can improve the dispersion, the fluidity, the luminescence property, the bending strength, the bending modulus, the tensile strength and the impact strength of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites. The scanning electron microscopy shows that the dispersibility and the interface bonding of the strontium aluminate phosphor are improved in the composites by using the coupling agent, the birdnesting is decreased too. The MAPE is better in improving the properties of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites than the YB-510 and the KH-560. The thermogravimetric(TG) and derivative thermogravimetric(DTG) curves of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites indicate that the KH-560 is better to improve the thermal stability of the rare earth fluorescent bamboo plastic composites, the YB-510 has an adverse effect on the thermal stability of the composites, and the MAPE has no effect on the thermal stability of the composites.

Rebuilding of compound middle lamella of plant fibers and enhancement of paper strength

WANG Peng, LE Xi, YE Zhezi, WU Chenxi, XIE Yimin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 71-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.011
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Abstract ( 173 )
The dehydrogenation polymer(DHP) and the DHP-carbohydrate complexes are prepared through the co-polymerization of the unbleached kraft pulp of low kappa number from hardwood and coniferin or coniferin/pectin in the presence of the lignin peroxidase. The 13C-NMR determination shows that the main substructures of the obtained DHP are β-O-4, α-O-4, β-β, β-5 and β-1 structures. Furthermore, it is also found that the DHP is linked with the pectin and the fibers of the kraft pulp by typical LCC linkages, i.e. the benzyl ether bonds, the ester bonds, and a small amount of ketal bonds. As a result, the paper strength is increased significantly after the rebuilding of the CML structure of the fibers. The dry and wet tensile strengths of the paper web are increased by 37.5% and 166.3% after treatment with the coniferin and the pectin. It is demonstrated that the lignin precursor can be co-polymerized with the pectin and the polysaccharides in the pulp fiber efficiently, to obtain the rebuilt CML, which binds the pulp fibers and therefore enhances the paper strength.

Bleaching process and its mechanism for bamboo chemi-mechanical pulp

QIN Chengrong, YAO Shuangquan, WANG Shuangfei
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 76-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.012
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Abstract ( 199 )
The bamboo can be a kind of important non-wood pulp used as paper resources, which has a short growth period, and is in a large reserve and with a low cost. But the bamboo pulp faces some problems, such as the low whiteness and the poor stability of the whiteness, the high yellow index, and it is difficult to deal with due to its high silicon content. In order to improve the bleachability, the whiteness and its stability and strength of the bambusa chungii APMP pulp, the hydrogen peroxide, the sodium borohydride, the sodium hydrosulfite, the peracetic acid and the oxygen are used as the bleaching agents in single stage or two stage combination supplementary bleaching. The results show that the best single stage supplementary bleaching of the bamboo chemi-mechanical pulp is the conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Two supplementary bleaching experiments show that the greatest improvement of the whiteness is made by the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium hydrosulfite, with the whiteness being 73.85% ISO; the largest reduction of the viscosity is made by the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium borohydride, with the viscosity reduced from 960 mL·g-1 to 601 mL·g-1. Although the pulp viscosity is reduced after two supplementary bleachings, the physical strength is improved. The conjugated carbonyl content in the pulp is decreased with the use of the hydrogen peroxide, the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium hydrosulfite and the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium borohydride, but the content is increased with the use of the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the peracetic acid. The most significant removal effect of methoxy, lilac lignin and condensation guaiacyl ring is produced by the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium hydrosulfite in the supplementary bleaching. The minimum degradation of the carbohydrates is produced by the hydrogen peroxide and the combination of the hydrogen peroxide and the sodium hydrosulfite in the supplementary bleaching.

Two-pot in situ preparation, characterization and performance of nano silver/polydopamine/cellulose fiber antibacterial paper

LI Chunting, QIAN Xueren, AN Xianhui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 81-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.013
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Abstract ( 219 )
The nano silver/polydopamine/cellulose fiber(nanoAg/PDA/CF) antibacterial paper is successfully in situ prepared by the twopot method without using any additional reducing agent. The scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) analyses reveal that the spherical or cuboidal silver nanopartiles with the size of 70~150 nm are loaded on the surface of the nanoAg/PDA/CF antibacterial paper. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) and the thermogravimetric(TG) analyses confirm that the silver nanopartiles are in situ generated and deposited on the polydopamine functionalized cellulose fiber surface. The novel nanoAg/PDA/CF antibacterial paper shows a remarkable antibacterial feature against both S. aureus and E. coli. The optimum preparative conditions of the nanoAg/PDA/CF composite are: the pH value of 8.5, the dopamine concentration of 125 mg/L, the silver nitrate concentration of 375 mg/L, the dopamine self-polymerization time of 2 h, and the room temperature.

Recycling characteristics of bamboo pulp fiber and improvement of the strength of its handsheet

JIN Hailan, CHO Junhyung, OKAYAMA Takayuki, CHEN Lihui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 87-90. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.014
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Abstract ( 197 )
The recycling and the ultrasonic treatment of bamboo fibers are investigated. And the bamboo paper density, the tensile strength and other properties of the handsheets are determined. Repeated recycling leads to a decrease of the paper density and the tensile strength. The Page equation(1/T=1/F+1/B) is used to evaluate the strength contributions of a single fiber and the inter-fiber bond to the tensile strength of the bamboo handsheet. It is found that the bamboo paper strength improves as a result of the ultrasonic treatment, which is essentially due to the enhanced inter-fiber bonding strength and the slight changes of the zero-span tensile strength. Optical microscopic observations indicate that, the ultrasonic treatment has induced the fiber cutting, the fiber swelling, and the fibrillation, which contributes to the bamboo paper strength improvement. The WRV(Water retention value) depends upon the times that the fibers are recycled, and the repeated recycling leads to a reduction of the bamboo pulp WRV. Interestingly, the ultrasonic treatment significantly enhances the water retention, as well consistent with the results related to the bamboo paper strength.

The effect of combined application of the fixing agent and the retention aid on controlling of dissolved and colloidal substances in pulp

XIA Xing, LIU Zehua, WANG Lijun, CHEN Hui, WANG Jianhua
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 91-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.015
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Abstract ( 178 )
A polyamine(PA) fixing agent, and a cationic polyacrylamide(CPAM) retention aid are used individually as well as in combination to treat the old newsprint pulp, and the focused beam reflectance measurement(FBRM) is used to measure the quantity, the size and the size distribution of the colloidal particles in the pulp filtrate, to reveal the combinative effect of the fixing agent and the retention aid on the controlling of the dissolved and colloidal substances(DCS) in the papermaking pulp raw material. It is indicated that when the PA is used singly to treat the pulp, some colloidal agglomerates will be formed which are not fixed with the fiber or not trapped in the fiber mat, thus they reside in the pulp filtrate; when the CPAM is used singly, its charge will be neutralized easily by the DCS, therefore, its ability to reduce the quantity of colloidal particles in the pulp will be weakened greatly, and larger colloidal agglomerates will not form; when the PA and the CPAM are used in combination, those agglomerates formed by the PA but resided in the aqueous phase will be further retained onto the fiber by the CPAM, in this course, the quantity of the colloidal particles will be reduced and larger colloidal agglomerates that form in the PA treatment will not form.

Selected laser sintering characteristics of bamboo/plastic composite powders and application in investment casting

LI Jian, GUO Yanling, ZHAO Dejin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 96-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.016
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Abstract ( 180 )
With the bamboo powder as a typical plant fiber powder, this paper studies the thermal bonding theory for the bamboo powder and the thermoplastic resin. With the appropriate hot melt adhesive powder, a theoretical analysis of the thermal effect of the thermoplastic resin bonding mechanism is made for the bamboo powder particles. The experimental study of the laser sintering characteristics of bamboo powder/thermoplastic resin composite powder is made for the bamboo powder mixed with the thermoplastic resin powder, focusing on the average mechanical properties of the SLS parts. The mixture of the bamboo powder and the thermoplastic resin powder is used to manufacture complex casting parts and SLS forming member. The infiltration wax casting dimensional accuracy of parts and transfer characteristics are studied.

The super-hydrophobic structure of lotus leaf generated on the bamboo surface based on soft lithography

WANG Fapeng, LI Song
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 101-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.017
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Abstract ( 160 )
The super-hydrophobic micro-nano structure of the lotus leaf is generated on bamboo surfaces by soft lithography. The superhydrophobic structure created on the bamboo surfaces is similar to that of the lotus leaf after twice replication, with fresh lotus leaves as the template and the polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) as the seal. The results of the scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and the water contact angle(WCA) measurements show that the prepared bionic lotus-leaf bamboo samples enjoy lotus-leaf-like micro-nano papillary rough surfaces. The WCA is 150.5°(the average value), very close to that of lotus leaf surfaces(154.5°), displaying a super-hydrophobic property. The successful preparation of the bionic lotus leaf micro-nano structure samples confirms the feasibility that a super-hydrophobic surface on bamboo and other hydrophilic materials could be achieved with the nano-technology.

Preparation of superhydrophobic fabric and the potential application in oil reclaim

ZHANG Ming, ZANG Deli, BAO Wenhui, WANG Chengyu, SHI Junyou
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 105-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.018
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Abstract ( 230 )
The construction of waterproof materials is of great technological importance in various applications. The major challenge is the scalable fabrication of the superhydrophobic materials with the desirable combination of a good thermal stability and the excellent ultraviolet-visible(UV) resistance. Here a simple, easily operating and low-cost approach for the textile with these functions is reported. After the decoration, the superhydrophobic textiles with the water contact angle(WCA) of 151.5° exhibit not only an efficient shielding property against the UV with transmittance less than 2%, but also an excellent thermal stability. More importantly, this fabric displays an outstanding potential applications in the oil reclaim, which can recycle the oil from the waste water with oil stain efficiently.

Research development of biomorphic ceramic derived from wood templates

ZHOU Ming, WANG Chengyu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 111-115. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.019
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Abstract ( 174 )
It is a novel bionic technology for the design of advanced materials to prepare the biomorphic ceramic materials from the biotemplates. Because of their special functions in light, electric, magnetic and mechanical performances, the biological ceramic materials have a great potential applications in the field of various new areas. In this paper, the preparation methods, the characteristics and the applications of these biomorphic ceramic materials are reviewed. The prospect of the development of the biomorphic ceramic materials is commented.

Self-assembly nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels bio-inspired from the characteristics of “light-soft-floating-flexible” of cotton

FAN Bitao, HU Xiaojian, WANG Hanwei, SUN Qingfeng, JIN Chunde
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 116-119. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.020
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Abstract ( 203 )
In order to achieve the characteristics of "Light-Soft-Floating-Flexible" of cotton through bionics, the novel nanofibrillar cellulose(NFC) aerogels with ultralight, superhydrophobic, elastic and collapsible properties are prepared. The dropped bamboo leaves(DBL) go through a series of chemical treatments to obtain the purified cellulose, and then through the ultrasonic treatment to turn the disassembly bundled cellulose to the NFC. A nanolayer of the methyltrimethoxysilane is covered to the surface of the NFC aerogels to fabricate the superhydrophobic aerogels. The contact angle measurement, the scanning electron microscopy(SEM), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) are employed to characterize the features of the asprepared aerogels. This paper provides a feasible route for the fabrication of the novel natural nanofibers from waste biomass.

Research progress and preparation methods of biomimetic functional superhydrophobic wood surfaces

LIU Feng, WANG Chengyu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 120-126. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.021
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Abstract ( 275 )
The superhydrophobic surfaces with the water contact angle greater than 150° and the contact angle hysteresis less than 10° have aroused a considerable interest in the scientific and industrial community due to their great importance in the fundamental research and the potential industrial applications. Generally speaking, the superhydrophobic surfaces can be fabricated by creating a rough structure on a hydrophobic material surface or modifying a rough surface with a special low surface energy material. This paper reviews the preparation methods based on superhydrophobic wood sciences, as well as the applications of the sol-gel processing, the hydrothermal synthesis processing, the wet chemical method, the surface coating technology and the solution-immersion process, and some suggestions about how the field is likely to advance in future are made. Some problems in the present stage, and the development in the future are discussed.

Preparation of Ag/Ti composite film based on wood substrate and the formaldehyde degradation under visible light irradiation

GAO Likun, LI Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 127-131. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.022
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Abstract ( 134 )
The micro-nano Ag-TiO2 composite film on the surface of wood substrate is fabricated using the hydrothermal synthesis and silver mirror method. The morphological feature, the crystal form, the chemical state and the optical properties of the as-prepared TiO 2/Agcoated wood are analyzed using the field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), the X-ray diffraction(XRD), the transmission electron microscopy(TEM), the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and the UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy(UV-vis). Meanwhile, it is shown that the TiO2/Ag-coated wood has the property of formaldehyde degradation under the visible light irradiation. In this heterostructured system, due to the fact that the Fermi level of Ag is lower than the conduction band of TiO2, the Ag nanoparticles can act as the electron scavenging centers to cause the electron and hole separation, leading to the enhanced photo-catalytic activity of TiO 2. In this paper, a new material for formaldehyde degradation is prepared, and the functional wood-based materials have great potential applications in new-style functional materials.

Preparation of poplar powder filled poly lactic acid composites material and application in 3D printing

XU Min, BI Yongbao, SONG Yongming
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 132-137. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.023
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Abstract ( 206 )
Currently, the constraints of the 3D printing technology is in the materials. The paper studies how to add the material by the technology of the fused deposition and the melt mixing process of the polylactic acid and the poplar wood powder composites are experimentally studied, focusing on the mixing ratio of the raw materials, the extrusion conditions and the testing mechanical properties, as well as the microstructure and the performance of the extruded composites. The results show that the amount of poplar wood powders has a significant impact on the composites. With the increasing amount of powders, the mechanical properties of the composites deteriorate. When the added amount of the ordinary poplar powders is 40%, the flexure strength, the tensile strength and the impact strength are decreased by 30.3%, 26.5% and 82.2%. When the added amount of the special poplar powders is 40%, the flexure strength, the tensile strength and the impact strength are decreased by 14.5%, 22.9% and 72.9%. From the rheological properties of the materials, it is seen that the elastic modulus and the loss modulus increase with the increase of the wood powders in a positive correlation. The viscosity of the composites fluid reduces, which suggests that the mobility gets worse and the fluid resistance increases after adding the powders. DSC detection finds that the glass-transition temperature, the crystallization temperature and the melting temperature of composites see no difference as compared to the pure PLA. The addition of wood powders only changes the melt flow but has no effect on the melting point. From the SEM, it is seen that the polylactic acid and the wood powders combine closely and mix uniformly no matter what the proportion of the raw material is. The FT-IR shows that the major groups do not change.

Recent progress in studies of cellulose aerogel

GAO He, LIANG Daxin, LI Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 138-142. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.024
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Abstract ( 284 )
Aerogel is a new kind of porous nanostructured solid materials, with a wide application prospect in the heat insulation and preservation, the adsorption catalysis and the high performance capacitor because of its low thermal conductivity, low refractive index and low resistivity. In this paper, its development, the synthetic methods and the application of the aerogel are reviewed, focusing on the development, the synthetic methods and the applications of the cellulose aerogel. Moreover, the existing problems in the development of the cellulose aerogel are discussed, and its future development is commented.

Progress in studies of fabrication and multi-functionality of superhydrophobic fabric

ZHANG Ming, WANG Chengyu, SHI Junyou
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 143-148. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.025
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Abstract ( 270 )
This paper studies the basic theory of the superhydrophobic surface(Young's, Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter Model); reviews the influencing factors on the fabrics wetting properties(macrostructure, microstructure, microcosmic properties, capillary effect, chemical composition) and the fabrication methods of the superhydrophobic textiles(sol-gel, LBL assembly, chemical vapor deposition, chemical etching, electrospinning, polymer film forming, phase separation, radiation grafting) and their potential multifunctional properties(antibacterial property, fire resistance, oil-water separation, superamphiphobicity, UV resistance); proposes a solution for the bottleneck in the development; and comments on the future of the applications of the superhydrophobic textiles.

Preparation of poplar with robust superhydrophobicity

ZHANG Ming, ZHANG Wenbo, SHI Junyou, WANG Chengyu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 149-153. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.026
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Abstract ( 183 )
The superhydrophobic materials suffer from many shortcomings in the practical use, especially, the poor durability. We use a vacuum-pressure impregnation method to treat the poplar with the synthetic raw material of silica. In the vessels of poplar, the silica nano spheres are then generated through a sol-gel process of the TEOS in the ammonium hydroxide and the ethanol, to create a robust hierarchi cal rough structure on the wood, as well as the microvessels of poplar. After the decoration, the poplar exhibits not only an excellent water repellency but also a more outstanding durability. The superhydrophobic product during the air exposure, the immersion(in water, acid/alka line liquid or common organic solvent) and the washing tests still displays an excellent superhydrophobicity.

Advance of studies of reversible switchable wettability behavior

GAO Zhengxin, WANG Chengyu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 154-160. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.19.027
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Abstract ( 226 )
This paper reviews the related researches in recent years, including the preparations and methods for fabricating and controlling the reversible switchable wettability materials. The mechanism for the responsiveness is also discussed. Some weak spots in the related researches are analyzed, like the difficulty in production and the instability, and the possible future studies and the applications of biobased materials with reversible switchable wettability are pinpointed. It is expected that the stability of the properties should be paid more attentions in further studies, and the materials with smart wettability surfaces will have an important application in the future.
Interview

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 161-163.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 164-165.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 166-167.
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Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 168-168.
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Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 169-171.
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Abstract ( 97 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 172-172.
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Abstract ( 148 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 173-173.
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Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 174-174.
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Abstract ( 205 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (19): 175-175.
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Abstract ( 96 )

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