13 February 2018, Volume 36 Issue 3

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  • CHEN Guangren, LIU Zhiyuan, TIAN Tian, ZHU Yehua
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 8-26. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.001
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    In the annual event for selecting top advances in science, technology and engineering of the year by Editorial Department of Science & Technology Review, the top 10 scientific achievements, top 10 technological achievements, and top 10 engineering achievements from China in 2017 were selected respectively among all the scientific researches published in influential academic journals and scientific newspapers. The selection procedure involved screening and recommending candidate internally, followed by appraisal from experts including editorial board members and external reviewers. These achievements are introduced respectively in three categories, in each category the achievements are arranged in a order of their publishing times.
  • Think Tank
  • YANG Guobiao
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 27-31. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.002
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    Developed countries often attach great importance to non-governmental organizations to carry out international activities. The paper analyzes the present situation and existing problems of our social organizations, and puts forward objectives, tasks and some suggestions for our social organizations to conduct international exchanges and cooperations.
  • Scientifc Comments
  • XING Xiusan
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 32-35. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.003
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    This paper presents a definition of life from the viewpoint that microscopic biomacromolecule connects with macroscopic entity, that is, the life is a self-organized organic entity, which consists of protein, nucleic acid and so forth, and possesses intrinsic (and external information exchange) regulation.
  • CHEN Xiaoliang
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 36-40. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.004
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    The ability of language is a basis of human cognitive development and lifelong learning, which opens the door for human wisdom. In the era of artificial intelligence, language is also an indispensible tool for the machine to express ideas, exchange knowledge and communicate with human world. The key to make the machine truly recognize the human world is to let the machine not only understand human language in complex scenarios but also adapt to the far-field voice interaction habits that have been formed by human evolution for thousands of years. This article hopes to provide a reference for development of machines with human intelligence.
  • Spescial Issues
  • JIANG Dong, WANG Qian, DING Fangyu
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 41-48. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.005
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    The study of geographical environment characteristics and evolution rules is an important scientific support for recognizing the international geopolitical situation and safeguarding national security. Since 21 century, the rise of frequency and influence of all kinds of geopolitical events causes a serious threat to China's geopolitical safety and implementation of "the Belt and Road Initiative". The occurrence of geopolitical events is the result of interaction of various geo-environmental factors. The analysis of the evolution process of multi-dimensional geopolitical elements is an important basis for simulation and early warning of geo-risk. This paper reviews the origin and historical progress of the research on geo-environment both at home and abroad, systematically combs the main observation means of geo-environmental factors, and sums up application results of big data technology in the field of geo-environment research. Research shows that single geopolitical events have a high degree randomness, but the occurrence of massive events is affected by various geo-environment factors. Based on geo-environment system theory, the paper describes the complex relationship between geographical environment factors by using a large data analysis method, which helps to solve the problem of specific geographical. Finally, the paper suggests that the future geo-environment research should be guided by the geo-environment system theory and uses big data mining and machine learning technology to construct a spatiotemporal simulation and intelligent analysis model of geo-environment.
  • SONG Tao
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 49-54. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.006
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    The border area plays a key role in national security and China's opening to the outside world. In the context of the Belt and Road Initiative and national strategy of opening up, the border area is embracing important development opportunities. The geo-economy serves as an important field of geopolitics. It is helpful to enrich the study of border geography by making use of China's special national conditions and the complex geographical environment of the border. The border is characterized by multi-scale, multi-feature, evolutionary and a variety of perspectives. The border geographical research should focus more on geopolitics, spatial structure and sustainable development of the border, as well as evolution of governance structure. This paper reveals the sustainable development path of border areas, which is different from those of coastal and inland development, enriches the border research in the perspective of geo-economics, as well as provides scientific and technological support for the development of policy making in China's border areas.
  • ZHANG Xun, LI Jiangtao, ZHANG Xiaohu, FU Jingying, WANG Dongming
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 55-61. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.007
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    The geopolitical environment simulation and prediction platform aims at recognizing the international geopolitical situation and serving "the Belt and Road Initiative". The platform synthesizes 3DWebGIS and WebGL technologies, and integrates multi-scale geopolitical environment factors for geopolitical environment simulation and prediction research. Under the constraints of index system of geopolitical environmental factors and software engineering standards, this paper clarifies the overall architecture scheme of the platform, establishes the database of geopolitical environmental factors, and focuses on geopolitical environmental data management and comprehensive assessment. The platform has formed a system of technical methods of geopolitical environment simulation and prediction, providing a set of visualization and visual analysis means for geopolitical environment research. It is expected that its completion will provide geopolitical environment data support and software platform guarantee for the country's "the Belt and Road Initiative".
  • HAO Mengmeng, CHEN Shuai, JIANG Dong, WEI Zhihong
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 62-69. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.008
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    Based on the GTD which is one of the international terrorist incident databases, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of the Indochina Peninsula terrorist attacks using spatial statistics and kernel density analysis, discusses the transformation characteristics of terrorist attack targets and modes, and introduces the main terrorist group in the peninsula terrorist attacks. It is pointed out that Indochina Peninsula will gradually become one of the key areas that terrorist organizations will attack. The government should take measures to prevent terrorist attacks.
  • LIN Gang, DING Fangyu, FU Jingying, YANG Xuefei, HAN Quan
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 70-74. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.009
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    A fast and accurate recognition of risk levels of geopolitical system for the typical regions of "the Belt and Road Initiative" can provide scientific support for the geopolitical strategy. The geopolitical system is not only influenced by climate and geographic environment but also hemmed by nationality, religion, civilization, ideology, political system and development level. Solutions to those problems not only depend on interdisciplinary work but also need cross-border study. Based on the geosystem theory, this paper makes a systematic study of literature, and firstly presents an evaluation index system for geopolitical risks. Then, it provides a machine learning method to evaluate the geopolitical risk levels of South Asia region based on the multiscale and multidata sources global geo-environment database. It is expected to provide a scientific support for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC).
  • FENG Zhiming, XIAO Chiwei, YANG Yanzhao
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 75-81. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.010
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    Rice is an important strategic material and its production also relates to national economy and people's livelihood.Investigation on the changes in rice production and its driving factors in traditional rice production regions is of great importance in enhancing food provision function,ensuring regional and national grain security and proclaim contributions factors.Taking the Southeast Asia (SEA) as a study area and using LMDI method and the rice production data of 1961-2014 at regional and national scales from the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT),we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns and change of rice production,and we further investigate the main influencing factors of these changes.The results are as follows.Since 1961,the SEA total rice production has achieved great development,the rice production of SEA accounting for about 30% of global output and showing an overall increasing trend.Meanwhile,rice plantations of the SEA have generally expanded northward from the countries of ISEA to the counterparts in MSEA (especially Thailand and Vietnam).The main contribution factor affecting rice production was unit rice yield in the SEA.
  • CHEN Mingxing, SUI Yuwen, LU Dadao, LIU Weidong
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 82-90. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.011
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    China has entered a new period of development, the Belt and Road Initiative and new-type urbanization strategies are being fully implemented, which will bring a long-term important impact on China's regional development. In this context, the Belt and Road Initiative and new urbanization are new transformation and upgrading strategies facing home and abroad, and how to integrate the two strategies is an important issue worth considering. This paper combs the evolution of regional development strategy and the relationship between major national and regional strategies in recent years. Then, this paper analyzes the possible impact of the Belt and Road Initiative on new urbanization, and the supporting effect of new urbanization on the Belt and Road Initiative. Finally, it puts forward several measures to promote the integration of the Belt and Road Initiative and new urbanization, including the interactive mechanism of times background and fusion development, change patterns and new development of global urban system, design of spatial roadmap of the Belt and Road Initiative, urban network system with surrounding countries of the six corridors, new urbanization construction and international production capacity cooperation, hub city, the selection and program design of node city and portal city participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, and study on risk prevention in promoting international cooperation.
  • QU Qiushi, WANG Limao, FANG Yebing, MOU Chufu, XIONG Chenran
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 91-99. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.012
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    In this research, the energy efficiencies of China, Mongolia and Russia are analyzed for the period of 2000 to 2014. The conditions of energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission are investigated through the data from IEA and World Bank. The total factor energy efficiency is calculated with super SBM and window DEA model. Besides, regression analysis is used to identify the influencing factors. The result indicates that Chinese energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions were higher than Russia and Mongolia. Chinese and Mongolia energy consumptions and carbon dioxide emissions were closely related. The energy efficiency in Russia from 2004 to 2009 was the highest while Chinese was the highest from 2009 to 2014. Moreover, the economic development and energy trade increment had positive effects on energy efficiency, whereas both input of high energy consumption and proportion of industrial would bring negative influences on energy efficiency.
  • DONG Donglin, LI Zeng, FU Jingying, LIN Gang
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 100-107. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.013
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    The development of "the Belt and Road Initiative" provides new opportunities for countries along the belt and road to complement each other and expand development using the new platform of international cooperations. sub-Saharan Africa is one of the important cooperation objects of China under the framework of "the Belt and Road Initiative". The region has abundant forest resources. It is the important content of building "the Belt and Road Initiative" to strengthen the investment cooperation with the regional forest resources. This paper takes into account the resource endowment, socio-economic factors, natural geographical factors and political and diplomatic factors of the region. Based on multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a risk analysis model for sub-Saharan African forest resources investment is established. Through selection of evaluation indexes, index system and index weight analysis, the main control investment factors are analyzed and evaluated. A comprehensive evaluation is carried out for investment risk analysis of forest resources in that area. The evaluation results can provide a scientific basis for China enterprises to invest forest industry in the region.
  • HAN Quan, JIANG Dong, FU Jingying, LIN Gang
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 108-116. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.014
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    There are a wide range of energy minerals and abundant reserves in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The natural mineral resources endowments are highly attractive to investment. Thus, it is important to strengthen the construction of energy and mineral investment in sub-Saharan region for promoting the implementation of "the Belt and Road Initiative" (B&R). This paper uses the fishbone diagram to analyze the primary and secondary factors of energy and mineral investment, which takes into account the energy and mineral reserves, socioeconomic factors, natural geography and political diplomacy in sub-Saharan Africa, and pays much attention to the energy and mineral investment factor. It provides an analysis model of energy and mineral investment in sub-Saharan Africa based on the multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the selection of index, establishment of index system and analysis of index weight, it also presents a study and evaluation analysis of the main investment factors, and obtains the investment weight ranking of energy and mineral industry among sub-Saharan African countries. Rich energy reserves and good geographical suitability are the greatest investment attraction; the capacity of diplomacy, legal environment and culture are the main risk factors that investment may face; the comprehensive investment environment is "excellent". This study provides a scientific basis and objective understanding for Chinese enterprises in the field of energy and mineral resources to invest in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • YIN Fang, YANG Xuefei, JIANG Dong, LIN Gang
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(3): 117-122. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.03.015
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    Energy supply is one of the important factors of economic development. The steady and rapid economic development in our country requires the supply guarantee of oil and gas energy. The Middle East region has abundant oil and gas resources and our energy cooperation with that region will provide strong support for economic development. However, the fact that the political turmoil in the Middle East is a challenge to our country's investment. This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process, and through collection of relevant data consults the literature to sort out the evaluation indexes. Then a summary analysis of these evaluation indicators is given to provide a reference for our country to invest the Middle East oil and gas resources. A conclusion is drawn that the comprehensive risk of oil and gas resources investment in Iran is the lowest.