13 October 2020, Volume 38 Issue 19

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    Policy and Management
  • GAO Fang, LI Mengwei, ZHAO Zhiyun, JIA Xiaofeng, HOU Huimin
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 46-57. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.014
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    Focusing on the implementation of the National Medium- and Long-Term Program for the Development of Science and Technology (2006-2020), a comparative analysis of the science, technology and innovation levels of China and major innovative countries is conducted from six dimensions including R&D funding, R&D personnel, papers, patents, knowledge-intensive industries, and innovators. The great progress that China has made for the past 15 years is summarized. China has become the world's second largest R&D investment country, the number of highly cited scholars has jumped to the second place in the world. The numbers of highly cited papers, applied and granted patents have grown rapidly to the top in the world, the scale of knowledge-intensive industries and their exports have maintained rapid growth. On the other hang gaps and deficiencies in China's R&D investment structure, top talents, technological competitiveness, etc are revealed. The R&D intensity has not exceeded the critical point of 2.5% and the proportion of basic research investment is still significantly low. The number of R&D researchers is small and the growth is very slow. The proportion of corporate R&D personnel has generally shown a slight-downward trend. In terms of patent quality, there is still a significant gap between China and the United States, Japan, Germany and South Korea. Innovation activities are still limited to a few companies and innovative leading companies are scarce. Several suggestions are proposed in terms of diversified investment, talent training and gathering, effective supply of core technologies, and equal attention on quantity and quality indicators.
  • YUAN Shuai, HE Jie, HE Fei
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 58-67. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.015
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    Science and technology are the primary productive forces and the decisive factors in our economic and social development and in winning international competition. With the increasingly fierce global competition in science and technology, increasing and optimizing national investment in science and technology research and development has become the common strategic orientation of the world's major powers. China's science and technology industry has developed rapidly, but compared with the requirements of building the world's science and technology power, shortcomings are still outstanding. Therefore it is of great significance to the construction of China's national science and technology innovation system to make an in-depth study of the trends of input and output of R&D in developed countries and to accurately judge the characteristics of China's science and technology R&D. This paper focuses on 7 countries with the largest R&D investment in the world and analyzes R&D amount, intensity and structure, sources of funding and directions of use, researcher numbers in these countries during the past 10 years, as well as the number of papers, number of highly cited papers, Category Normalized Citation Impact, patent, knowledge-technology-intensive industry and other representative output indicators. The purpose of the research is to judge the trend of global science and technology development and to find out the direction of China's science and technology development. Finally, the study proposes to optimize the structure of research and development investment, increase the investment in basic research, enhance the influence of output, and increase the strength of scientific and technological talent team building.
  • HE Jie, YUAN Shuai, HE Fei
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 68-76. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.016
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    Since the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the goal of building a well-off society in China has been achieved in stages from reaching a well-off level in general to building a well-off society in an all-round way. Accordingly, higher education has achieved a quantitative development from massive higher education to universal higher education, and begun to shift from extensional development to connotative development in qualitative aspects. At the same time, higher education has also played a powerful role in promoting the realization of various national strategies during the period of building a well-off society in terms of talent team construction, cultivation of innovative personnel, scientific research and development, excellent cultural inheritance, and transformation of scientific and technological achievements and other aspects. The transformation of the main social contradictions in the country poses new challenges to the development of higher education. Higher education should further strengthen its connotative development, focus on the fundamentals of talent cultivation, realize balanced regional development of higher education, and improve the driving force for higher education innovation.
  • LIU Changjian, XI Kuanwu, HUANG Li, JIN Lianjie
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 77-87. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.017
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    Since the 18th CPC National Congress, transportation poverty alleviation has entered a new stage and transportation plus industry poverty alleviation has become an important direction. The mode of transportation plus industry poverty alleviation is a characteristic poverty alleviation mode. It fully integrates the experience of transportation poverty alleviation and industry poverty alleviation, promotes the development of transportation infrastructure, transportation service, management and other elements in poor areas, pays attention to the integration of the first, second and third industries in poor areas, and realizes positive interactions between transportation supporting industry and industry promoting transportation. In the "14th five year plan", we need to change from service support to poverty alleviation in poverty-stricken areas, turn to service support for rural comprehensive revitalization, and turn to continuously cultivate endogenous driving force for economic and social development in underdeveloped areas. Underdeveloped areas should pay attention to the development modes of transportation plus rural logistics, transportation plus leisure tourism, transportation plus resource development, transportation plus internet, transportation ‘new infrastructure’ plus industry, etc.
  • Talents and Development
  • ZHANG Mingyan, DENG Dasheng, LI Kang, SHI Hui, GAO Huijie, XU Jie, HUANG Chen, YU Qiaoling, XUE Shuangjing
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 88-93. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.018
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    This study aims to investigate the current situation and risk of innovation and entrepreneurship of science and technology workers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with a random sample of 18,629 science and technology workers using the National Survey Site of the China Association for Science and Technology. Besides, field research was conducted on 9 technology-based startups and incubators and had interviews with science and technology workers, technology management experts, and entrepreneurial tutors. The study shows that the willingness for entrepreneurship is increasing. However, most science and technology workers stay in a wait-and-see stage and their entrepreneurial actions vary with the implementation of innovation policies. Some potential science and technology entrepreneurs dare not to leave their jobs as they have worries. It is necessary to further crack policy difficulties and institutional obstacles and improve the ecological environment conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • XIONG Li, ZHU Jianbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 94-102. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.019
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    Although many studies have discussed the positive impacts of organizational incentive system and salary on scientific research performance, few have empirically examined the positive effect of work-related flow, or estimated the difference due to the level of flow among scientific researchers in China. A survey was sent to 772 scientific researchers from 20 universities in China, considering gender, age, professional rank, subject, region, institutional category and educational background as the 7 demographic variables. By conducting difference test and regression analysis, it is found that work-related flow is positively related to scientific research performance. Among the demographic variables, educational background, region and institutional category cause the largest differences of the level of work-related flow while professional rank and subject have no significant influence. This study explains not only why scientific researchers with the same background conditions perceive different level of individual work-related flow but also why scientific researchers with different background conditions perceive different levels of overall work-related flow. We also suggest that universities need to pay more attention to work-related status and cognitive factors of scientific researchers in the future.
  • ZHAO Chen
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 103-109. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.020
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    Based on the grey system theory, this paper studies unbalanced distribution of regional scientific and technological talents in China and calculates the main factors affecting the unbalanced distribution. On this basis, a grey system prediction model of scientific and technological talents is established to simulate and predict the numbers of regional scientific and technological talents in China. The result shows that the regional difference Matthew effect is obvious, that the siphon effect continues to exist, and that the risk of barrel short board increases. Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The result of the study has certain reference value for controlling the risk of extremely unbalanced distribution of scientific and technological talents in China as well as coordinating regional development
  • WANG Yinqiu, LUO Hui, SHI Yunyan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(19): 110-120. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.19.021
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    Talents are the foundation of entrepreneurship and the driver of prosperity. The essence of innovation-driven development is talent-driven. Scientific talents are the most critical driving force and decisive factor in the development of economy. There are fierce talent competitions between different regions in China. In this paper we abstract talent migration between different provinces in China as a complex network, and propose an associated networked model. Based on bibliometrics, we get the data about talent migration between different provinces from 2010 to 2017. We combine the data and the propose a networked model to study the evolution of talent migration in China by analyzing the evolution of some indicators of the network. In addition, we also study the talent migration flows in a view of obstacle factors by the way of assuming an obstacle-free framework. We hope that the results can be used to make policies about talents for governments and support to analyze social problems in quantification.