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  • Review
    REN Xiaoping, LI Ziyu, ZHOU Xiaolin, SHEN Yunyi, YANG Yun
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(18): 72-78.
    In a world of increased economic and cultural exchanges, the emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by the global spread, with a significant impact on the world economy and the public health. The international science and technology collaboration on preventing the infectious diseases, and dealing with the challenge of the global public health emergency, is an urgent task. The mechanism of the international science and technology collaboration (ISTC) plays an important role in the prevention and the control of the EIDs. Based on the studies of the recent outbreak of the newest EID, the novel coronavirus pneumonia, the roles of the ISTC during the EIDs prevention and control are analyzed in this paper. It is shown that the EID prevention and control involves several aspects of the ISTC, including the timely exchange of the latest epidemic information, the quick-response joint research, the sharing of antiviral drugs and medical technology, the personnel training and the construction and the improvement of the EID prevention and control system. Finally, this paper puts forward a few policy recommendations with respect to the EID prevention and control from the perspective of the global governance and the ISTC.
  • Review
    CUI Yumin, YIN Rongcan
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(18): 79-87.
    The rapid development of dyestuff industry increases the emissions of the dye wastewater, gradually aggravating the pollution in the environment and posing a great threat to the human health. So it is important to develop effective methods to clean the dye wastewater. Various new materials and new processes are involved in physical methods (the activated carbon adsorption method, the membrane separation technology, and the magnetic separation technology), chemical methods (the electrochemical process, the chemical oxidation process) and biological methods (the dye wastewater treatment by fungi, the dye wastewater treatment by bacteria), as reviewed in this paper, focusing on the physical methods and the chemical methods. The main problems in the process of the dye wastewater treatment and the development trend are put forward.
  • Review
    CHEN Yongquan, ZHANG Wenquan
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(18): 88-93.
    With the rapid development of the economic construction, the original conventional engineering consulting methods concerning the divisions of functions and business are found inadequate. First, this paper analyzes the development status of the engineering construction management with the FIDIC clause system and from the development trends, and proposes a comprehensive engineering integration consulting theory based on the system science and the comprehensive/integration theory, and discusses the compositions of the comprehensive consulting on engineering projects based on the comprehensive engineering integration consulting theory, from 9 dimensions. This paper provides ideas, theories and methods for the comprehensive consulting of engineering projects.
  • Review
    LIU Chen, WU Yehui, LI Bo, DONG Xufeng, CHEN Hualing, CHEN Guimin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(17): 69-81.
    Abstract (649) PDF (1204) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Soft robot is a new kind of robot with various freedom of movement and good environmental adaptability. However, low stiffness of the soft robot limits its practical carrying capacity. Therefore, it is meaningful to develop variable stiffness technology for soft robot. This paper summarizes the new variable stiffness technology in recent 5 years, introduces and analyzes its working principles including electrostatic adsorption principle, layer interference principle, self-locking origami mechanism, electrical/magnetorheological principle and minimum potential energy principle, variable stiffness performance and practical application. This paper also discusses the challenges for the current variable stiffness technology and the future development direction, and summarizes the potential research value of the new generation of variable stiffness technology.
  • Review
    REN Xiaodan
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(15): 84-94.
    In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in the field of civil engineering and infrastructure construction in China, greatly supporting the continuous development of the economy. While China's economy steps into the "new normal" phase, the development of civil engineering shows some new features and the developments of fundamental theories and advanced technologies attract more and more attention. Nonlinear analysis of structures, one of the essential problems in civil engineering, has been concerned by more and more researchers and engineers. For constitutive modeling of engineering materials, the damage model plays an important role where structural damage and failure are considered. In this paper, the historical development of damage model for quasi-brittle materials is briefly reviewed. Then V&V of the damage model is described and its applications to civil engineering are presented by case studies. Finally, an application of the theory to bio-engineering is shown with a case. In the near future, the transformation and upgrading of traditional civil engineering will be promoted by the coupling between its fundamental research and engineering application.
  • Review
    HU Ruolan, WANG Shuxiao
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(15): 95-109.
    Abstract (600) PDF (1336) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is one of the most important components of PM2.5. It significantly influences air quality, radiation balance and human health. Thus, studying the formation and control of SOA has a significant meaning in revealing the cause of particulate pollution and improving eco-environment. However, there are still many challenges in the field of SOA study because of the complexity of organic compounds, reactions and atmospheric conditions. The purpose of the paper is to summarize the progress of SOA research based on investigating the literature published on the top international academic journals in the field of environment and atmospheric chemistry in 2019. The molecular characteristics and sources of SOA are delved into with a variety of novel or modified methods and instruments in both field studies and laboratory simulations. The formation process and major influence factors of SOA from some natural and anthropogenic precursors are investigated. Atmospheric aqueous chemistry and the interaction between organic and inorganic compounds are found playing an important role in the formation and aging of SOA. In addition, the contribution of SOA to the change of aerosol optical property and the impact of aerosol on human health are estimated. In conclusion, it is necessary to pay attention to the further research of SOA so as to take effective actions to control particulate pollution.
  • Review
    LI Ke, ZHANG Hongxun, YU Zhisheng, ZHENG Fengjuan
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(15): 110-116.
    The microbial pollution in water environment would induce intestinal and respiratory diseases, threatening human's health. More and more attention had been paid to the pollution situation and detection methods of microorganisms in water environment. Based on the categories of water environment microorganisms, this study briefly introduced the characteristics and infection risk of pathogens. The indicative microorganisms in Chinese water quality standards were summarized and compared to that in USA and EU. The main factors affecting the microbial pollution in water environments were made clear based on the sources of microbial pollution. The detection methods of water environment microorganisms and their application status were reviewed. In brief, all the seven watersheds are contaminated by microorganisms. It would positively improve the prevention and control work of microbial pollution by improving the indicative microorganisms in relative water quality standards, controlling the sources of microbial pollution, and enhancing the detectability of microbial pollution.
  • Review
    SHI Huilin, SUN Xuehui, XU Li, XU Ping, WANG Yue
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(14): 92-99.
    In recent years, the advances in the new generation genomic sequencing and bioinformatics technologies have pushed forward the development of the human microbiome research. The relationships between the human microbiome and the whole life cycle health, the occurrence and the development of diseases and the function of the nutrition or the medicine have been further explored, which brings changes in the health and medical concepts. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the global human microbiome development trends, it is found that the human microbiome reference sequence analysis is still in progress, and its emphasis has shifted from the census of the composition and the distribution of the human microbiome to the analysis of the composition of the microbiome of specific populations. The analysis of the causal mechanism gradually becomes the focus of the research, meanwhile the health interventions based on the reconstruction of the human microbiome have ushered in new insights. A large number of basic researches were carried out in China on the human microbiome, and great achievements were made in specific applications, such as the fecal bacteria transplantation. However, some problems remain to be solved, such as the lack of long-term tracking and analysis of large-scale population samples, the lack of systematic research work, the insufficient independent innovation capabilities of the high-value reconstruction products, as well as some regulatory loopholes in the product development. On this basis, some feasible policy recommendations are put forward for the future development of the human microbiome in China.
  • Review
    ZU Mei, YAN Feng, CHENG Haifeng, LIU Dongqing, CHEN Chen, LI Mingyang
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(14): 100-106.
    In recent years, the hyperspectral imaging technology sees a rapid development and is widely applied in the military field, with great opportunities for military reconnaissance and unprecedented challenges for military camouflage. This paper analyzes a specular like detection technology for disguising the threat of the stealth technology and the difficulties in the traditional hyperspectral camouflage materials and technology. The researches of the hyperspectral camouflage materials and technologies for simulating the vegetation background are reviewed, focusing on four material systems:The plant camouflage technology, the biomimetic camouflage based on inorganic pigments, the biomimetic camouflage based on the chlorophyll and the "ecological camouflage" based on living organisms. The shortcomings of the existing hyperspectral camouflage materials and techniques in the biomimetic camouflage technology are analyzed. It is shown that the bionic materials cannot accurately simulate the characteristic absorption peak of the green vegetation, the stability and the durability of the biomimetic materials are poor, and the overall thickness of the materials is large, which is difficult to realize in the practical large-scale application. On this basis, a camouflage strategy is put forward to use the "ecological camouflage" based on living organisms. It is proposed that the future development direction and the trend of the hyperspectral camouflage materials and technology are to improve the "bionic camouflage" technology and optimize the "ecological camouflage" technology.
  • Review
    FU Pengqiang, JIANG Xiaocan, MIAO Yuhang, WANG Yiwen, WANG Zhao
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(13): 93-107.
    According to the problem that the actual position of an industrial robot has deviation from its theoretical position in aviation manufacturing industry, the source of absolute positioning error of industrial robot is explored and its influence on the connection performance of aircraft components is analyzed. Based on the principle of absolute positioning error compensation of industrial robot, the role and importance of kinematic modeling, pose measurement, kinematic parameter error identification and error compensation on absolute positioning error compensation of industrial robot are described. The mainstream algorithms and techniques developed by domestic and foreign scholars in this field are compared, and problems and possible solutions existing in each step are summarized. After discussions on shortcomings of industrial robot offline and online error compensation technologies, a development trend of industrial robot absolute positioning error compensation technology is presented.
  • Review
    CHEN Ping, SUN Cheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(13): 108-116.
    Nearly zero energy consumption building aims to achieve zero energy consumption and has become an effective way and a main goal of building energy conservation and emission reduction. By tracing the origin and development process of nearly zero energy consumption buildings, this article discusses the similarities and differences of similar concepts and the basic ideas towards nearly zero energy consumption buildings. In view of the classification of overall strategies of nearly zero energy consumption buildings in the current research situation, this paper also discusses the division method of overall strategies for low energy consumption and high production capacity, which is convenient for balance measurement. Based on the overall strategy, a technical framework of nearly zero energy consumption building is constructed, and the main technical measures, characteristics and development trend are described.
  • Review
    SHI Yajing, LENG Yufang, CHEN Feng, ZHANG Jianmin, REN Yixing, LIU Xin
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(13): 117-124.
    Ursolic acid (UA) is a kind of pentacyclic triterpene acid compound found in a variety of plants, such as bearberries, privet leaves, and loquat leaves. In addition to the pharmacological effects of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and hepatoprotective, UA also has the function of improving and treating many kinds of diseases in nervous-mental system. In this paper, the role of UA in neuronal injury, cerebrovascular diseases as well as mental disorders and its research mechanisms are summarized by literature analysis so as to provide reference for subsequent research and clinical application of UA in nervous-mental system diseases.
  • Review
    LIANG Xiubing, WAN Yixing, MO Jinyong, ZHANG Zhibin, HU Zhenfeng, CHEN Yongxiong
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(11): 96-108.
    Abstract (558) PDF (1087) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    High entropy alloy (HEA) is a novel metallic material that has emerged for 20 years. Its frontier research involves a multidisciplinary fusion of materials science, physics, chemistry, mechanics, and computational science. The high-temperature high entropy alloy, discovered in the last decade, is of great significance in the field of material science innovation development and engineering application. Affected by four effects including high entropy effect, lattice distortion effect, hysteresis diffusion effect, and cocktail effect, the high-temperature HEA has the characteristics of high strength, high hardness, high wear resistance, high-temperature resistance, and corrosion resistance. Herein, a series of recent scientific and technological achievements in high-temperature HEAs are reviewed in terms of definition, formation mechanism, material system design, and overall performance of high-temperature HEAs. Some problems are analyzed. The complexity of the extreme service environment and the correlation between material calculation design and high-temperature HEA performance are pointed out. Top ten scientific problems in the research are summarized. Finally, the future development trend and application prospects of hightemperature HEAs are presented.
  • Review
    ZHANG Song, BAI Keqiang, DAN Zhihong, QIAN Qiumeng, LIU Lei
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(11): 109-117.
    Intake pressure control of high altitude platform is the key to ensure the effectiveness and reliability of high altitude simulation test. The design of intake pressure control method based on extended state observer (ESO) can effectively improve the control quality of intake pressure in high altitude platform simulation test, restrain the influence of unknown disturbance, and realize fast and stable control of intake pressure. In this paper, the development status of the intake pressure control system of high altitude platform is summarized, and the existing problems in research are pointed out. The research progress of the control technology based on ESO is systematically described. Parameter tuning methods and improved design methods of ESO are classified. The development strategy and research direction of ESO intake pressure control of high altitude platform are proposed.
  • Review
    XIE Song, LI Minghao, GONG Yize, CHEN Xiantao
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(11): 118-125.
    The thermal safety problem of lithium-ion batteries under aviation airborne conditions is a key factor that restricts their application in the aviation field. The related scientific issues are the research hotspots at home and abroad. This paper reviews the thermal runaway problem of lithium-ion batteries and their products in aviation application and transportation. Thermal runaway characteristics and mechanisms of the batteries under low temperature, low pressure and enclosed space conditions are presented. Thermal runaway behaviors and laws of the batteries are introduced from the five aspects:thermal runaway temperature, thermal runaway time, heat release rate, mass loss, and thermal runaway spreading law. It is proposed that future research should be focused on thermal runaway behaviors of lithium-ion batteries concerning the synergistic effect of low temperature and low pressure environments.
  • Review
    WANG Bo, CHEN Chushu, GUO Yajun, LIU Naibo, XU Zehua
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(9): 66-77.
    Different from the phased array in which the beam direction is controlled by phase difference between array elements, the frequency diversity array (FDA) radar can realize beam control with higher degree of freedom by introducing frequency difference between array elements. This paper summarizes the research progress of FDA radar at home and abroad, and analyzes its current research status from aspects of array structure and orientation graphic coupling technology, electronic countermeasure technology application, electronic countermeasure technology application and so on. On this basis, some key technical problems to be solved, such as uncoupled FDA time-varying beam control, FDA-based electronic warfare technology and FDA-based radar practical research, are analyzed. For actual combat application of FDA, it is needed to develop a feasible time-invariant FDA distance-angle decoupling method of the beam and carry out integrated application research concerning FDA based structural analysis, launch waveform and frequency control function design, so as to speed up the process of FDA radar from conceptual stage to combat application.
  • Review
    LI Fengfeng, GUO Rui, YU Yichang
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(8): 128-140.
    This paper reviews the studies of carbonate facies, and analyzes related problems and prospects. It is shown that the abroad studies mainly focus on the geographical distributions of the sedimentary rocks and the difference in the sedimentary energy in the facies belt in contrast with the domestic studies, which put the emphasis on the refinement of the facies and the lithofacies paleogeography. The studies of the reefs in the Sichuan Basin and the South China Sea made a great progress, with a better understanding of the reef formation environment, the controlling factors, the developmental mode and the characterization methods. The sedimentary models of the lacustrine carbonate rocks are diverse, and the sedimentary model of the microbial carbonate rocks is continuously improved. Significant progress is made in the spatial and temporal distributions, the developmental mechanisms, the controlling factors, the sediment characteristics and the geological significance of the cold water carbonate rocks. There are two methods to study the carbonate facies:the geological method and the geophysical method. The geological method includes the microfacies analysis, the experiment analysis, the biological facies and the geochemical methods while the geophysical method includes the mathematics-logging and seismic methods. However, the classification of the carbonate facies is not yet standardized. The method of the experimental analysis, the biological facies and the geochemical are less studied. The studies of the shoal architecture are few. The studies of the low energy environment are even fewer. It is concluded that the techniques tend to be a combination of qualitative and quantitative ones. The unconventional carbonate rocks such as the deep water and the cold water ones should be further studied. The principle of the facies controlling reservoirs is widely used, and the facies controlling modeling, the facies controlling diagenetic analysis, and the genetic classification, would effectively guide the carbonate reservoirs.
  • Review
    WANG Xiaoming, LI Ning, WANG Xinxing, CHEN Xuewei, CUI Bo, LI Xi, LI Zhe
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(7): 96-101.
    The U.S. has always keen interest in "super" efficiency of soldiers, and has taken various measures to promote the development of human efficiency enhancement technology. This paper analyzes the development characteristics, including top-level design strategic traction to deploy forward-looking layout of core areas, tasks of scientific research institutions focusing on different core directions, and investment to ensure smooth development of cutting-edge scientific research. It systematically combs the U.S. army's researches and achievements in human efficiency enhancement in terms of physical strength, skills, and intelligence. It also discusses the development trend of the field, as well as possible social legal and ethical problems and specific measures and suggestions.
  • Review
    YIN Zhengong, WANG Qiang, MENG Xianxin, GUO Yifan, WEI Shuhong, LAI Yongcai
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(6): 102-108.
    In recent years, the halo blight spreaded in a large area in the main producing areas of common bean in China, resulting in yield reductions or even crop failures with no yield at all. It is one of the main factors that endanger the production of common bean in China. However, the common bean germplasm resources against the halo blight are in an unclear state, with very few related genetic studies, and very scarce disease resistant varieties available for production. Therefore, this paper reviews studies of the pathogenic mechanism, the identification methods, the control measures, the resistance inheritance, and the selection of disease-resistant germplasm resources of common bean with anti-pathogen of halo blight, and puts forward suggestions for the urgent research directions of halo blight, to promote the research and development of genetic breeding with resistance to halo blight of common bean in China.
  • Review
    LI Fangsheng, ZHAO Shijia, HU Youbo
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(6): 109-116.
    The motor vehicle product management is of great significance for ensuring the product quality, guiding the industrial development, standardizing the corporate management, and protecting the consumer rights and interests. This paper makes a systematic review of the safety self-certification and the environmental protection access management of the motor vehicle product management system in the United States, focusing on the regulatory objects, the main responsibilities, the legal basis and the basic procedures of the competent authorities, as well as the main characteristics of the motor vehicle management system, such as the perfect supervision system, the severe punishment, and the safety management and the mature recall system. In combination with the latest development trends, the latest development trend of our motor vehicle product management system is analyzed from the aspects of how the COVID-19 epidemics promote the optimization of the access management in the US, how the environmental protection access management becomes more open, and how the intelligent internet-connected vehicle management is accelerated.
  • Review
    GAO Yuehong, WANG Chunli, MAO Yanyan, LIU Lili
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 99-105.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem due to its complex etiology and difficult treatment. CKD affects about 10% of the world's population and can lead to higher risks of cardiovascular disease and death. One of the key links of CKD prevention and treatment is to prevent or delay the progress of CKD. This article summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, R&D investment and preventive and therapeutic drugs of CKD in order to understand the current situation and new preventive and therapeutic progress of CKD.
  • Review
    ZHANG Anmin, ZHOU Jian, ZHANG Hao
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 106-116.
    Abstract (602) PDF (1166) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The environmental perception ability is the premise and foundation for unmanned surface vehicles to implement missions. The development status of unmanned surface vehicles, especially the Chinese latest achievements in the field of USV research and development are introduced. The current research status of unmanned surface vehicles ontology state perception and external environment perception (active perception, passive perception, integrated perception) are summarized, and the advantages and limitations are discussed. According to the future development needs, key technologies of environmental perception technology and application orientation such as high precision hydrological information inversion, sea-air collaborative observation, ocean mesoscale phenomenon observation and marine military information gathering based on USV are proposed.
  • Review
    HUANG Bincheng, CHEN Si, GAO Fang, GE Jianjun, WU Xueling
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 117-125.
    StarCraft is an important game for studying the future combat autonomous decision technology. Similarities between StarCraft and the autonomous decision process are described. Planning, learning, and uncertainty in decision-making algorithms for StarCraft are also analyzed. Firstly, the key problem of future combat autonomous decision-making technology is discussed in terms of decision complexity. Then, the article proposes to create a large-scale war game to clarify the development of future battle autonomous decision-making technologies, such as system's top-level architecture, game AI modeling technology, large game engines, etc. in order to provide a useful reference for the development of autonomous decision system intelligent technology.
  • Review
    LI Changqin, CHENG Li, ZHANG Xiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 126-130.
    With the development of military human efficiency enhancement technology and the emergence of soldiers'genetic programming, man-machine integration, self-perception of weapons and equipment and other technologies, military forces in various countries are facing a series of ethical, institutional and operational challenges and difficulties while improving their military capabilities. By fully investigating the current situation of military human effectiveness enhancement development in those countries, this paper comprehensively analyses the background of the application and development of military technology, combs the current status of its development, and points out that with the development of new technology and application of genetic programming technology, soldiers are no longer independent human beings but a technical component of the combat system. Therefore the world needs to formulate a new legal system as soon as possible to pay more attention to the ethical issues of enhanced soldiers and foresee the balance of military development and the long-term impact of enhanced effectiveness on human beings.
  • Review
    LI Qian, WANG Fang, ZHOU You, YU Qianru, WU Shijia
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 131-140.
    Titanium-based photocatalytic materials are synthesized to measure the photocatalytic activity against ochratoxin A (OTA) and the degradation products of OTA after photocatalysis are identified. The NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanoparticles coated with anatase TiO 2 (NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2) are synthesized by hydrolysis of the titanium precursor to form a core-shell composite. The synthesized composite are characterized by TEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS and FL. Under UV-Vis-NIR (200~2500 nm) irradiation, NaYF 4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 have a photocatalytic degradation effect and result in production of strong oxidizing free radicals, which can effectively degrade the OTA. After further optimization, the optimum loading of catalyst is found to be 10 mg/mL. Under pH of 6.2 and 500 W xenon lamp (light source), the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 5 μg/mL OTA can reach up to 98.7% after 30 min. This photocatalytic reaction follows the first-order kinetics. Two products C11H9O5Cl and C19H17ClNO4 are formed during the OTA degradation, which have been assessed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) are 256.015 and 360.061, respectively. The present study may open a new avenue to degrade other toxin.
  • Review
    WANG Zhong, LI Hao, SHI Wenjuan, LU Jieyi, QIAO Dongling
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(5): 141-147.
    The effects of starch with different amylose/amylopectin ratios on the microstructure and properties of starch/agar composite films prepared by casting method are studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) test, mechanical property test and hydrophilic and hydrophobic property test are carried out. The microstructures and properties of starch/agar composite films with different ratios are compared. Results show that the value of elongation at break of waxy/agar composite film is lower than the other two when the agar content is fixed. With the increase of agar content, the tensile strength of each composite film increases, and the water contact angle of G50/agar composite film increases significantly, while the weak hydrophilicity of agar reduces the hydrophilicity of the composite film surface.
  • Review
    LI Xiaocen, ZHU Xiangying, YUAN Cheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(23): 138-143.
    Diseases caused by virus epidemic have become a risk factor affecting human health and there are different degrees of outbreaks at home and abroad almost every year. The outbreak of viral diseases is related to many factors, one of which is climate. Many studies have shown that under certain conditions, weather conditions such as temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, air pollutant concentration, and some extreme weather events are closely related to virus epidemic. The relationship between the epidemic of SARS virus, dengue virus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and climate is reviewed in this article. It is shown that virus is produced in certain natural conditions and environment, specific climatic factors are the driving force of virus epidemic, and similar climate is more conducive to virus epidemic. Beyond the domain value, climate factors will limit or even block the spread of virus. The effects of different climatic factors are discussed, which can improve the early warning mechanism of viral diseases and help prevent and contain possible outbreaks in advance.
  • Review
    ZHANG Qinghui, DAI Yang, LI Junqiu, ZHONG Lihui, LAN Zengquan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(22): 95-103.
    Due to its advantages of low cost, portability and easy field operation, no radiation, and fast detection speed, the acoustic-based non-destructive testing method has been widely applied in the area of wood materials. In this paper, we present first the basic principles of common acoustic-based nondestructive testing methods, including the impact stress wave method, the ultrasonic method, the resonance method, the acoustic emission, the acousto-ultrasonics, and the tomography technology, and analyze and compare their characteristics. Then, we review the applications of these methods in the wood industry, such as the evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of wood and the detection of wood internal defects, and the studies of improving the detection accuracy, and analyze the difficulties in the acoustic-based wood non-destructive testing. Finally, we discuss the development trend of the wood non-destructive testing equipment in terms of signal source, signal transmission mechanism, signal analysis and processing, portability and real-time performance, and point out that the emergence of new theories and technologies will greatly promote the development of non-destructive detection for wood.
  • Review
    TIAN Yiran, ZHANG Xiaoran, LIU Junfeng, SONG Kaihong, ZHANG Ziyang, TAN Chaohong, LI Haiyan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(22): 104-113.
    As one of the world's largest industrial solid wastes, the coal gangue not only takes up a large area of land, but also harms the environment such as the atmosphere and the soil. Related researches show that the coal gangue can be used as an environmentally friendly material after being pretreated with its environmentally friendly performance. This paper reviews the resource-recycling methods and related researches of the coal gangue reused as environmental materials, including three aspects. The coal gangue enjoys a certain adsorption performance against pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals and organic matter. Thus, it can be used as the economical adsorbent after pretreatment. With its high strength after being calcinated, it can be used as recycled building aggregate to produce permeable bricks and permeable asphalt. The organic matter and trace elements in the coal gangue can increase the content of the humic acid in the soil and improve the soil quality, then promote plant growth. This area is a prospective research direction, to improve the pretreatment method of the coal gangue, and explore the removal effect and the mechanism for different or multiple pollutants. In the actual production, more processing methods such as the crushing and the screening of the coal gangue could be developed, the systematic fertilization process should be established and applied. More comprehensive related standards should be formulated. New ideas and research directions are suggested for the management and the friendly utilization of the coal gangue.
  • Review
    SUN Weihao, MA Jianli, LIU Hailong, WU Chengwei, ZHANG Wei, PENGPAT Kamonpan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(22): 114-122.
    In the past 40 years, the electrical stimulation is widely applied in biomedicine, largely due to the progress achieved in the experimental studies of electrical stimulation of cells. The obtained results are valuable for developing novel diagnosis and therapy techniques for diseases. Recent studies focused on the mechanism by which electrical stimulation alters cellular biological behavior, but the interpretation of many of related phenomena is difficult and controversial. We discuss the experimental equipment for electrical stimulation of cells from three aspects:the direct current electric field, the sinusoidal electric field and the pulsed electric field, and the effects of electrical stimulation on the mechanical properties of cells, including the elasticity modulus, the intercellular stress, the cell adhesion and the cell membrane tether force, as well as the corresponding biological mechanism and the application of electrical stimulation in inducing the cell differentiation, the apoptosis and changing the cell migration direction. The correlations among the electrical stimulation, the mechanical characteristics of cells and the biological behavior of cells are analyzed. Finally, we highlight the existing problems in the electrical stimulation of cells and put forward some suggestions for the future development.
  • Review
    YANG Jun, ZHANG Enhao, GUO Zhiheng, WU Aoguang, WANG Beiqi, SHI Lihao, DU Hui, XU Lejin
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(20): 35-49.
    Abstract (823) PDF (1654) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    This paper reviews the recent scientific researches and the important engineering milestones in the key fields of the frontier nuclear energy science and technology, focusing on the research and project progresses in the nuclear energy engineering, the small module reactor, the fusion technology, the space reactor, and the digital reactor. The research and development of the frontier nuclear energy technology is shown to be progressing steadily in general. Small reactors have good application prospects in sea, land and air and will open up a new world of the nuclear energy utilization beyond the traditional commercial nuclear power. The advanced nuclear fuel design, the high-precision numerical simulation and other technologies are important development directions for the nuclear energy safety in the future. With the further innovation and diversity of the technology, the diversified development trend of the nuclear energy is expected to occupy an important position in the global energy structure.
  • Review
    FANG Bin, XU Rui, GAO Xiang, CAI Yuxuan, XU Yang
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(20): 50-56.
    As a critical equipment of constructing the actual combat environment, with the maneuvering capability against threat, the target drones must have desirable electromagnetic and countermeasure characteristics. Since the performance of threats is being enhanced rapidly, the lack of the simulation capability for the domestic target drones becomes a serious issue. This paper reviews the typical models and the practical applications of target drones in China and America, including the performance level and the simulation capability of the existing target drones. In view of the enhanced threat, the specific capability requirement for the target drones is analyzed, and a novel method based on the multi-target drone combination is put forward. Finally, some proposals are made for strengthening the top design, verifying the capability requirement, tackling the key technologies and perfecting the system in the context of the long-term development of target drones.
  • Review
    ZHONG Yu, WANG Ren, LI Qi, WEI Houzhen, LI Xiaying
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(20): 57-70.
    The reef limestone is the main part of the coral reef rock mass. Its physical and engineering characteristics are important issues in the ocean construction, which concerns directly with the development process of "the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road" infrastructure. This paper reviews the studies of the coral reef limestones in different regions in recent decades, it is found that they have physical properties of high porosity, low density and low strength, with complex diversity of structure types due to their complex sedimentary environment and with different stress responses for different degrees of cementation. These properties are distinct from those of other continental and marine sedimentary rocks. So far, the studies of coral reef limestones are few and many problems are emerging along with the coral reef engineering constructions. Therefore, the studies of these aspects are highly desirable. The coral reef limestones should be classified by texture and structure types before a systematic study. The microscopic cementation mechanism, the engineering mechanical characteristics and the effect of seawater erosion are important topics in further studies of coral reef limestones.
  • Review
    YANG Fu, DUAN Zhonghui, MA Dongmin, TIAN Tao, FU Deliang, HE Dan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(20): 71-85.
    Underground coal gasification(UCG) is an effective means to exploit deep coal resources, and is a technology of clean and efficient development and utilization of energies. As compared with the traditional coal mining and surface gasification, it enjoys obvious advantages of economy, safety and cleanness, among other advantages. This paper reviews the development history, the gasification principle and the current situation of different gasification processes in the coal underground gasification, and it is pointed out that no-shaft underground coal gasification technology is the development trend in the future. A brief assessment of the latest advances and the development tendency is made, including the site selection, the selective gasifier, the goaf control and detection, the ultra-short horizontal well technology, the classification and the comprehensive utilization of gasification products. It is shown that combined application of the UCG-CCUS technology will make the underground coal gasification truly a new generation of green coal mining technology.
  • Review
    WANG Yi, ZHOU Qingliang, TONG Hua, XIAN Di, XU Wanzhi, REN Lu, TANG Wenyuan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(20): 86-96.
    In the context of the global climate change, severe weather is increasingly threatening the sustainable development of all countries, especially, developing countries. Thus an accurate and reliable weather forecast and the warning information are essential. This paper analyzes the Severe Weather Forecasting Demonstration Project (SWFDP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), including its initial concept and the status of regional subprojects. Currently, 8 regional subprojects were set up, covering about 80 countries. The recent technical progresses of the severe weather forecasting are reviewed, including the global deterministic numerical models, the regional numerical models, the ensemble prediction systems and the meteorological satellite data applications. The SWFDP involves a cascading forecasting process to provide an effective access to the products and the tools made available by the advanced operational global and regional centres. The basic characteristics of the numerical models and the operational systems in the major domestic and international meteorological centers are analyzed. Furthermore, current challenges for the development of the severe weather forecasting demonstration project are analyzed and the prospects of the project as well as the numerical model applications are discussed.
  • Review
    LIU Tan, SHI Shaowei, Thomas P. RUSSELL
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(17): 115-126.
    Liquids do not have a definite shape, which depend on the shape of the container. Structured liquid is a new type of soft materials based on the self-assembly and jamming transition of colloidal particles at liquid/liquid interfaces. Here, the research progress in the construction of new structured liquids using nanoparticle surfactants (NPSs) assembly at liquid/liquid interfaces is summarized. The promising applications of structured liquids in the fields of packaging, separation, catalysis, energy storage and biomedicine are introduced. In the future, more studies will focus on the development of new functional NPSs, the construction of multiresponsive, structured all-liquid systems, and the extension of the functional applications of structured liquids.
  • Review
    SHAN Jincheng, LI Baozhen, ZHANG Yanxu, WANG Xudong, SHI Leiting
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(17): 127-133.
    A detailed literature review is conducted on the worldwide development and application of offshore chemical EOR technology in this paper. After about 20 years of research offshore chemical EOR techniques, a series of resolutions and techniques have been developed, including high-efficiency driving agents, platform polymer injection distribution technology, and produced fluid treatment technology. Since 2003, field tests and applications have been carried out in 3 oil fields in Bohai Bay, with expected oil increment and good economic benefit. On the other hand, Indonesia, Angola and Brazil have respectively succeeded in field pilot tests from single well to well group by means of polymer flooding in high water-cut stage in hightemperature and high-salt offshore oilfield, early-stage polymer injection in deep-water oilfield, and offshore polymer injection with horizontal injectors. All of these have enriched the field application experience in offshore chemical flooding, which is a new road for increasing recovery rate of offshore oil field and provides a solid technical guarantee for the economic and efficient development of offshore oil fields.
  • Review
    ZHOU Zhichao, WANG Ju, CHEN Liang, ZHAO Jingbo, ZHANG Ming
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(16): 105-114.
    The high level-radioactive waste might lead to sustainable harms to the environment for thousands of years, and the geological disposal has been considered as a preferred proposal for the high-level radioactive waste safety management based on the passive safety. The time scale of the safety assessment could be up to ten thousand years, and the long-term safety assessment is the focus for the application and approval process of the repository site. Therefore, the safety assessment system needs to be simplified for the calculation and the prediction to improve the reliability of the assessment results. This paper reviews the research progress of the geological disposal for the high-level radioactive waste, the passive safety of the geological disposal and the safe management enlightenment of the nuclear technology. Based on the uncertainty safety principle of the geological disposal, the concept of the safety supervision is introduced to provide the technical support for the safe management of the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal.
  • Review
    HAN Lin, YANG Fan, FAN Weiwei, WANG Haiming
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(16): 115-123.
    As a new part of the international law system, the international space law involves a body of laws governing the space-related activities, including a variety of international agreements, treaties, conventions, etc.. In recent years, the international space exploration activities have witnessed a new upsurge. However, the development of the international space law system is lagging behind, and the contradictions between them become increasingly prominent. This paper reviews the international space law system and the main legal principles related to the space science exploration, and analyzes the international law principles, the representative domestic laws and regulations and the implementation cases of the most representative international hot legal issues of the space science exploration in the various areas, such as the space debris mitigation, the space resource exploration and utilization, the planetary protection, the orbit/spectrum allocation, the nuclear power source in outer space and small satellites, to provide a reference for China's space scientific exploration activities.
  • Review
    LIANG Xiaolong, HU Liping, ZHANG Jiaqiang, BAI Peng, REN Baoxiang, LI Zhe, HE Lülong
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(15): 74-88.
    Abstract (557) PDF (1064) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Autonomous air combat of aircraft swarm is a typical difficult problem that must be studied in the field of military intelligence. On the basis of summarizing relevant theories and techniques of intelligent air combat, the paper sorts out and summarizes the research work of predecessors, clarifies the development of intelligent air combat, and focuses on analysis of aircraft swarm theory and technology as well as the application status of artificial intelligence in air combat decision-making. Its purpose is to explore possible strategies for the development of China's intelligent military and feasible ways to achieve independent air combat of the swarm.