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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 5
13 March 2021


Foreword
Papers
Scientific Community
Review
Exclusive: Urban Space Planning and Governance in Response to public emergency
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 1-2.
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Exclusive: Urban Space Planning and Governance in Response to public emergency

Urban safety systems and its application in spatial planning

SHI Xiaodong, LI Xiang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 9-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.001
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Abstract ( 135 )
Combining with the experience of Beijing, Shanghai, Xiong'an, and other cities and regions, this paper explores the connotation of urban safety system, and combs the internal logic of urban safety system from the perspective of whole life cycle. Starting with three kinds of planning systems:master, detailed and special plan, the paper constructs an urban safety system which is transmitted and implemented from strategic and tactical level to operational level, and clarifies positioning, functions and key points of urban safety content at different levels to form the main ideas for building urban safety system. This paper also focuses on exploration of urban security systems at the master planning level and puts forward planning strategies and control measures of planning ahead at the strategic level, responding systematically at the tactical level and landing measures at the governance level.

Strategy of comprehensive disaster prevention planning in mountainous cities

ZENG Wei, ZHAO Yingjie
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 17-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.002
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Abstract ( 91 )
Disaster prevention and mitigation in mountainous cities is an important research direction of urban safety. From the perspective of comprehensive disaster prevention theory and on the basis of clarifying the characteristics of mountainous city disasters, this paper explores the correlation between the current research directions of comprehensive disaster prevention in mountainous cities and spatial forms, traffic road systems, and ecological landscape systems. It also discusses the current trend of disasters in mountainous cities and proposes a comprehensive disaster prevention planning system for mountainous cities under public emergencies at the macro-medium-micro levels. With the advent of the post-epidemic era, improving the health and resilience of the human settlement environment will become a focus of urban planning research so as to provide guidance for comprehensive disaster prevention planning in mountainous cities.

Urban design strategy for public emergencies from the perspective of healthy city

CHEN Tian, WANG Jiayu, LI Yangli
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 25-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.003
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Abstract ( 103 )
We systematically review the research process of healthy city at first. Then we combine successful experience and existing problems of Chinese cities in responding to the COVID-19 to present a path which leads to a healthy, livable, resilient and ecological urban environment. In particular, we put forward three kinds of healthy urban design paths of "region-systemnode", corresponding to the six-in-one urban design strategy of "ecological health-life health-healing health-environmental health-design health-treatment health". Finally, we perfect it into a visual expression of urban space.

Resilient response of urban public space to public health emergencies

WANG Shifu, ZHANG Xiaoyang, DENG Zhaohua
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 36-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.004
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Abstract ( 185 )
Based on the concept of "resilient city", the paper constructs an idea of resilient urban public space and explains its connotation and characteristics. Combined with the anti-epidemic measures of various countries in the COVID-19, it summarizes a system of "technical resilience-institutional resilience" of urban public space. It is shown that the technical resilience depends on healthy planning interventions, including integrating the health impact assessment into the whole process of planning, improving the planning of urban emergency service capacity, establishing a resilient public space system made up of "hub-nodeemergency flow", and coordinating the emergency space of "integration of peace and epidemic". Moreover, urban public space's institutional resilience depends on sound and smart social governance, including establishing the emergency response system, matching the emergency responsibilities, rights, capabilities of grass-roots communities, improving laws and regulations and other policy tools, and applying intelligent platforms for prevention and control. Technical resilience and institutional resilience can establish a new paradigm for urban public spaces to respond to public health emergencies.

Smart city construction and urban governance transformation under public emergencies

WANG Bo, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Jingqin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 47-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.005
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Abstract ( 110 )
Public emergencies have brought new challenges to urban construction and urban governance due to the complex causes, widespread impacts, and diverse hazards. Based on the connotation and impact of smart city construction, the article analyzes the function and role of smart citiy in responding to public emergency and in response to urban governance problem in public emergency. It also puts forward the path of smart city construction to promote urban governance transformation under public emergencies, which includes enhancing big data prediction and service capabilities of smart cities, using smart government to promote efficiency and coordination of urban emergency management, increasing smart emergency refuge space planning and construction efforts, developing smart manufacturing and smart logistics to enhance the urban emergency supplies guarantee function, improving the resilience of urban community management technology with smart community construction, providing reference for solving "big city disease", and improving the ability to respond to public emergencies and the level of urban governance.

Planning response to public health emergencies in winter cities

LENG Hong, ZHAO Huimin, YUAN Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 55-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.006
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Abstract ( 102 )
In the context of global climate change, public health emergencies brought by special climate conditions to cities cannot be ignored. Urban planning is an important means for government to ensure public health security. It is of great significance to improve the health level of urban residents in cold regions to prevent and control public health emergencies brought by urban climate in cold regions from the perspective of urban planning and make certain planning response.Based on the analysis of climate characteristics influence on public health emergencies, and combined with the challenges brought by urbanization, land use, traffic system and public space, this paper puts forward the planning and response strategies of public health emergencies in winter cities from two aspects:improving the resilience of social governance and human settlements, aiming at promoting the health of residents in winter cities and promoting the sustainable development of human settlements.

On space planning dimensions of resilienct city in response to public emergency

WANG Qiao, ZANG Xinyu
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 65-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.007
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Abstract ( 112 )
The COVID-19 epidemic has triggered deep thinking among scholars in the field of urban and rural planning. How to build a resilient urban space environment that is conducive to people's physical and mental health has become a hot topic once again. In this paper, concepts of resilient city and healthy city are combed and analyzed. Based on a literature analysis, many common characteristics between the two concepts are presented in terms of environmental, social, managemental aspects, especially in front of the problem of environmental pollution.. In the future, the studies of resilient city and healthy city are supposed to have certain intersection. Moreover, the research on resilient city is more closely related to urban space planning, which makes it easy to develop systematic implementation framework from the perspective of space planning. Combined with the current and future development needs of Chinese cities, this paper proposes the strategies and development approaches of China's resilient urban space planning in four dimensions, namely, form layout, natural environment, public facilities and social life and provides a reference to build a sustainable urban living environment.

Village planning for responding to public emergencies in the context of resilience

YANG Guiqing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 74-81. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.008
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Abstract ( 107 )
The threat of public emergencies in Chinese rural areas should arouse the whole society to a high degree of vigilance. The resilience of the rural settlements is an important ability to resist public emergencies. Based on the concepts of rural ecological resilience, economic resilience and social resilience, this article expounds the type characteristics of rural public ecological emergencies, economic emergencies and social emergencies, proposes that in the current national land and space planning, village planning should comprehensively consider the response strategies for rural public emergencies, emphasizing the planning and coordination of ecological space, production space and living space. It is necessary to combine rural emergency self-rescue with prevention and control. The improvement of the resilience of rural settlements is the constructional goal of village planning, so as to provide a guarantee for the sustainable development of rural settlements. On this basis, this paper constructs a theoretical framework for the relationship among "resilience of rural settlements", "rural public emergency" and "village planning" to guide village planning and rural constructional actions.

Supporting function and value orientation of science and technology in public health emergency

ZHOU Jianxin, BAO Yuanyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 82-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.009
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Abstract ( 118 )
The COVID-19 is the major public health event that has the fastest speed of transmission, the most extensive infection and the most difficult control and prevention since the founding of new China. Summarizing this public health incident, we can find that technology has played a supporting role in many areas but it also has shown its weaknesses and shortcomings. During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, the innovation-driven national strategy and the construction of the national public health system will provide greater opportunities and new higher requirements for the development of our country's science and technology. How to further leverage the support of science and technology in major public health emergencies and how to carry forward scientific spirit are of great significance. Specifically, we should adhere to the value orientation of "people-centered" and promote the scientific literacy of the whole people in the popularization of science as well as increase reform and innovation in the scientific and technological system and mechanism.

The research of policy responses to COVID-19 and effectiveness evaluation

SHEN Guoqiang, REN Huiyan, ZHOU Long, WANG Zhangye, YAN Xiaoyi
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 87-98. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.010
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Abstract ( 173 )
As of February 2021, the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak has been spreading across nearly 200 countries, causing over 100 million people infected and over 2 million people dead. The governments, private businesses, non-profit organizations, families and individuals in different countries have implemented various policies and strategies to minimize COVID-19 impacts according to their governance mechanisms, economic structures, social systems, and lifestyles. This paper briefly reviews the major epidemics in human history and introduces policy responses to COVID-19 and effectiveness evaluations taken by individual countries. After analyzing policy responses and categorizing them into Asia mode, Western mode and China mode, we summarize a package of policy measures and implement standards, including public protection and epidemic prevention, transportation and travel management, information track and virus detection, personal prevention and quarantine, financial aid and social support. The effectiveness evaluation system comprises 5 indexes and 15 elements. This paper provides suggestions for decision makers and the general public in concerted efforts to overcome COVID-19 and facilitates growth of the community of shared future in public health.
Review

New development of global drugs for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney diseases

GAO Yuehong, WANG Chunli, MAO Yanyan, LIU Lili
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 99-105. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.011
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Abstract ( 123 )
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem due to its complex etiology and difficult treatment. CKD affects about 10% of the world's population and can lead to higher risks of cardiovascular disease and death. One of the key links of CKD prevention and treatment is to prevent or delay the progress of CKD. This article summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, R&D investment and preventive and therapeutic drugs of CKD in order to understand the current situation and new preventive and therapeutic progress of CKD.

Environmental perception technology and application development of unmanned surface vehicles

ZHANG Anmin, ZHOU Jian, ZHANG Hao
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 106-116. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.012
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Abstract ( 212 )
The environmental perception ability is the premise and foundation for unmanned surface vehicles to implement missions. The development status of unmanned surface vehicles, especially the Chinese latest achievements in the field of USV research and development are introduced. The current research status of unmanned surface vehicles ontology state perception and external environment perception (active perception, passive perception, integrated perception) are summarized, and the advantages and limitations are discussed. According to the future development needs, key technologies of environmental perception technology and application orientation such as high precision hydrological information inversion, sea-air collaborative observation, ocean mesoscale phenomenon observation and marine military information gathering based on USV are proposed.

On future combat autonomous decision technology for starcraft

HUANG Bincheng, CHEN Si, GAO Fang, GE Jianjun, WU Xueling
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 117-125. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.013
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Abstract ( 117 )
StarCraft is an important game for studying the future combat autonomous decision technology. Similarities between StarCraft and the autonomous decision process are described. Planning, learning, and uncertainty in decision-making algorithms for StarCraft are also analyzed. Firstly, the key problem of future combat autonomous decision-making technology is discussed in terms of decision complexity. Then, the article proposes to create a large-scale war game to clarify the development of future battle autonomous decision-making technologies, such as system's top-level architecture, game AI modeling technology, large game engines, etc. in order to provide a useful reference for the development of autonomous decision system intelligent technology.

On current development of military human effectiveness enhancement technology and its problems

LI Changqin, CHENG Li, ZHANG Xiang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 126-130. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.014
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Abstract ( 105 )
With the development of military human efficiency enhancement technology and the emergence of soldiers'genetic programming, man-machine integration, self-perception of weapons and equipment and other technologies, military forces in various countries are facing a series of ethical, institutional and operational challenges and difficulties while improving their military capabilities. By fully investigating the current situation of military human effectiveness enhancement development in those countries, this paper comprehensively analyses the background of the application and development of military technology, combs the current status of its development, and points out that with the development of new technology and application of genetic programming technology, soldiers are no longer independent human beings but a technical component of the combat system. Therefore the world needs to formulate a new legal system as soon as possible to pay more attention to the ethical issues of enhanced soldiers and foresee the balance of military development and the long-term impact of enhanced effectiveness on human beings.

Study of photocatalytic degradation of ochratoxin A on NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2

LI Qian, WANG Fang, ZHOU You, YU Qianru, WU Shijia
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 131-140. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.015
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Abstract ( 109 )
Titanium-based photocatalytic materials are synthesized to measure the photocatalytic activity against ochratoxin A (OTA) and the degradation products of OTA after photocatalysis are identified. The NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanoparticles coated with anatase TiO 2 (NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2) are synthesized by hydrolysis of the titanium precursor to form a core-shell composite. The synthesized composite are characterized by TEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS and FL. Under UV-Vis-NIR (200~2500 nm) irradiation, NaYF 4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 have a photocatalytic degradation effect and result in production of strong oxidizing free radicals, which can effectively degrade the OTA. After further optimization, the optimum loading of catalyst is found to be 10 mg/mL. Under pH of 6.2 and 500 W xenon lamp (light source), the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 5 μg/mL OTA can reach up to 98.7% after 30 min. This photocatalytic reaction follows the first-order kinetics. Two products C11H9O5Cl and C19H17ClNO4 are formed during the OTA degradation, which have been assessed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) are 256.015 and 360.061, respectively. The present study may open a new avenue to degrade other toxin.

Effect of amylose/amylopectin ratio on microstructure and properties of starch/agar composite films

WANG Zhong, LI Hao, SHI Wenjuan, LU Jieyi, QIAO Dongling
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 141-147. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.016
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Abstract ( 110 )
The effects of starch with different amylose/amylopectin ratios on the microstructure and properties of starch/agar composite films prepared by casting method are studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) test, mechanical property test and hydrophilic and hydrophobic property test are carried out. The microstructures and properties of starch/agar composite films with different ratios are compared. Results show that the value of elongation at break of waxy/agar composite film is lower than the other two when the agar content is fixed. With the increase of agar content, the tensile strength of each composite film increases, and the water contact angle of G50/agar composite film increases significantly, while the weak hydrophilicity of agar reduces the hydrophilicity of the composite film surface.
Papers

Breakthrough and winning award of Hua Loo-Keng's research on the theory of functions of several complex variables

GUO Jinhai
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 148-161. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.017
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Abstract ( 226 )
This paper reviews Hua Loo-Keng's breakthrough in the research of functions of several complex variables, discusses the process of his winning the first prize of the 1956 Scientific Awards of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and analyzes the influence of the award on him. Hua Loo-Keng studied the theory of analytic functions and harmonic functions on classical domains of the theory of functions of several complex variables from 1949 to 1955. In his research, he mainly used the theory of group representation, matrix calculation and other skills to concretely and originally obtain some of the most fundamental and profound results of the theory of functions of several complex variables on classical domains. To follow the Soviet Union's practice, the Chinese Academy of Sciences set up scientific awards for all citizens on behalf of the state in 1955. Hua LooKeng's 16 papers were recommended to compete for the awards by the Institute of Mathematics, CAS. And Hua won the first prize of the 1956 Scientific Awards of the CAS in 1957 after a rigorous review process, which not only enhanced his academic and social reputation but also encouraged him to continue his mathematical research and cultivate young talents with more attention. Under his guidance and influence, the research on the theory of functions of several complex variables ushered in initial prosperity in China in the early and middle 1960s.

Analysis and reflection on termination and cancellation of NSFC funded projects

TANG Fujie
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (5): 162-168. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.05.018
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Abstract ( 196 )
From 2007 to 2018, altogether 918 projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) were terminated or canceled, and a total of 205.20 million yuan was withdrawn. Based on the newly issued project change management regulations of NSFC and the management experience in termination and cancellation of projects, this paper analyzes the data of those projects terminated or canceled by NSFC, summarizes useful experiences, and puts forward some suggestions.

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