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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 22
28 November 2021

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Scientific Comments
Suggestions
Exclusive: Gait analysis
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 115 )

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 6-6.
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Abstract ( 65 )

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 7-8.
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Abstract ( 64 )

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 64 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 81 )
Suggestions

Problems and countermeasures in research ethical governance of Guangdong Province

ZENG Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 9-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.001
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Abstract ( 66 )
The scientific research ethics governance to standardize the scientific research activities is important to ensure the healthy development of science and technology. In our country,the studies of the regional scientific ethics governance are still rare. This paper analyzes the current situation of the scientific research ethics governance in Guangdong Province and it is shown that the number of the ethic committees or the institutional review boards is inadequate, their professionalism is in a low level, as well as the information sharing and linkage among ethical supervision departments of the scientific research projects, no enough attention is paid to the areas other than the life sciences,no adequate preventive mechanism before publication is established,more educations with respect to the research ethics is needed and it is necessary to establish a governance system for new technologies such as internet technologies. To solve the above problems,this paper proposes solutions and suggestions for Guangdong scientific research ethics governance.

Technology transfer programs of the US Department of Defense

YAN Zhiqin, LIU Yu, YANG Chao, HOU Junjie
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 19-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.002
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Abstract ( 59 )
The defense technology transfer is an important issue especially under the situation when China continuously invest greatly in science and technology innovation and the development of civil-military integration. This paper reviews the defense technology transfer programs of the US Department of Defense, and analyses the factors affecting the technology transfer, to provide some food of thought for China in this respect.

Brief analysis of Israel's scientific and technological activities in China from the perspective of science and technology diplomacy

DING Rui
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 28-34. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.003
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Abstract ( 66 )
From the perspective of "science for diplomacy", "science in diplomacy" and "diplomacy for science", it is shown in this paper that since China and Israel established diplomatic relations in 1992. Israel through "science for diplomacy", used advanced agricultural techniques to improve the agricultural production in China, and consolidated and improved the bilateral relations. Through "science in diplomacy", Israel has built several industrial parks in China with different characteristics. At present, Israel has enhanced its effort to attract investment from China and further assisted the development of its high-tech enterprises, to realizing the "diplomacy for science".
Exclusive: Gait analysis

Applications of different gait analysis systems in osteoarthritis

YUE You, WU Haihe, QI Yansong, BAO Huricha, WEI Baogang, WANG Yongxiang, MA Bingxian, XU Yongsheng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 35-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.004
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Abstract ( 78 )
The gait analysis technique for the lower limbs is currently one of the important clinical research directions for the diagnosis, the treatment and the intervention of osteoarthritis. This paper reviews the current clinical applications of three gait analysis techniques, the pressure sensing technology (the plantar pressure system), the computer vision technology (the marked gait analysis system and the unmarked gait analysis system) and the wearable technology (the wearable sensor system). Comparison is made with respect to the measurement principle, the experimental method and the clinical application advantages and disadvantages of the asynchronous state analysis system. Due to its complicated operation and the high professional requirements, it is not conducive for non-professionals to operate the computer vision technology equipment. With the wearable inertial sensing system technology, the personal, intelligent and comfortable wearable devices could be used. Due to its outstanding technical advantages and wide application prospects, it is an important development direction in the field of the medical prevention and the medical security in the future.

Gait analysis characteristics and their guiding significance for knee cruciate ligament rupture during running

REN Shuang, YIN Yu, ZHANG Si, LIANG Zixuan, YU Yuanyuan, SHI Huijuan, MIAO Xin, LI Dai, HU Xiaoqing, HUANG Hongshi, AO Yingfang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 43-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.005
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Abstract ( 67 )
This paper identifies the changes of the running gait after the ACL rupture and the further effects of the concomitant medial meniscus tear on the running gait changes after the ACL rupture. Based on the 3D motion capture analysis method, quantitative analyses are made for the changes of the running gait in the ACL-deficient patients (22 healthy controls, 8 isolated ACL-deficient patients, 8 ACL-deficient concomitant with medial meniscus tear patients). The results show that for the ACL-deficient knee joint, a significant decrease of the exogenous flexion moment is observed during jogging, which is not only related to the weakening of the extensor muscle strength of the ACL-deficient side, but also related to the change of the neuromuscular control mode. For the patients with ACL rupture combined with the medial meniscus tear, a significant external rotation instability of the knee is observed during jogging, which may be related to the reduced control of rotation stability caused by the medial meniscus posterior horn tear. It is suggested that in the rehabilitation training program for the ACL rupture patients, one should pay attention to their abnormal running gait and intensify the training of flexor and extensor muscles and rotational muscle group and the neuromuscular training to improve their abnormal running gait and reduce the risk of the secondary injury after the ACL rupture.

Application of orthotic devices in the knee osteoarthritis and its effect on lower limb gait

WU Haihe, WEI Baogang, WANG Yongxiang, BAO Huricha, MA Bingxian, QI Yansong, XU Yongsheng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 49-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.006
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Abstract ( 79 )
The lower limb gait analysis is an effective method to quantitatively analyze the biomechanical changes of the internal motion of the knee joint, as well as an effective way to study the occurrence, the development and the intervention of the knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Two kinds of gait analysis experimental systems and their principles are reviewed, as well as the changes of the KOA patients' 3D lower limb gait. Due to the complexity of the lower limb biomechanics and the limitations of the research technology, the technique of the 3D orthopedic insoles is still in the preliminary stage, and there is no consensus with respect to the therapeutic effect of the products, and they have not been mass-produced and used. Therefore, the application principle and the manufacture process of the 3D orthopaedic insoles in the KOA are emphatically discussed. The dynamic and static structures and the changes around the knee joint of patients with the KOA, as being widely used in the design and the production of the 3D orthopaedic insoles, provide an important solution for the early conservative treatment of the KOA. And it can not only meet the dual requirements of comfort and functionality for patients, but also significantly reduce the manufacturing cycle and cost.
Reviews

Research progress of polymer gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices

LI Xiaobai, YU Shuang, LI Yao
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 57-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.007
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Abstract ( 91 )
The electrolyte is an important component in the electrochromic devices (ECD), to provide the necessary compensation ions for the electrochromic reactions, and its performance directly affects the response speed, the optical contrast, and the cycle life of the ECD. The polymer gel electrolytes are widely used in the ECD because of the ease of processing and packing, as well as the good ionic conductivity. This paper reviews the research progress of polymer gel electrolytes for the ECD, especially, the applications, the problems and the development proposals of the novel ionic gel and polyionic gel electrolytes in the ECD.

Assessment of human exposure to semivolatile organic pollutants

ZHANG Zihao, WANG Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 65-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.008
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Abstract ( 90 )
The assessment of the human exposure to the semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is one of the hotspots in the environmental research field. The traditional methods (such as the blood and urine tests) have the disadvantages of invasiveness, complexity, high cost, and difficulty in collecting samples, among others. Novel passive sampling technologies were developed, which are non-intrusive, simple and convenient, and practicable. This paper reviews the human exposure assessment methods, including the model calculation based on the SVOC concentrations in the environmental matrices (e.g., air or dust), the invasive sampling, and the passive sampling, focusing on the emerging novel passive sampling technologies, including the silicone wristband, the silicone brooch, the hand wipe, and the clothing. Currently, the silicone wristband and brooch and the hand wipe samplings are widely used due to their advantages, such as the low price, the ease to use, the acceptability, and the good stability. The hand wipe can be used to capture the exposures via the hand-to-mouth contact and the dermal absorption. Meanwhile, the clothing is a novel passive sampling technology, which can be used to capture both gaseous and particle SVOCs. Therefore, using clothing to assess the human exposure has a good promise in its development and application.

Resilient manufacturing systems for mass personalization

LIN Wenguang, LAI Rongshen, XIAO Renbin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 75-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.009
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Abstract ( 84 )
With the development of the new generation information technology and the advanced manufacturing technology, the mass personalization has gradually replaced the mass customization as the current mainstream production mode. The resilient manufacturing system shows its ability to respond to and recover from the emergencies or the interruptions inside and outside the manufacturing system, and has become a key technology to support the mass personalization production. First, the co-evolution process of the production mode and the manufacturing system is discussed, focusing on the adaptive relation between the mass personalization production and the resilient manufacturing system, and the connotation of the system resilience is highlighted, as well as the research status of the resilience of the manufacturing system. Based on the analysis of the resilience process of the manufacturing system in the two levels of the supply chain network and the manufacturing enterprise's internal processing equipment network, a manufacturing supply chain network structure model is built based on the perspective of the material flow for further analyzing the resilience issues of the manufacturing system. The sources of the incentives, the resilience response processes and their characteristics, and the key supporting technologies of the resilient manufacturing systems are analyzed, and the evaluation index and the optimization strategies of the resilient manufacturing systems for the mass personalization production are suggested. Finally, the hot research directions of the resilient manufacturing systems for the mass personalization production are outlined.
Papers

Contentions of cyberspace resources in global geopolitical game

CHEN Shuai, GUO Qiquan, GAO Chundong, HAO Mengmeng, JIANG Dong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 85-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.010
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Abstract ( 139 )
The cyberspace has become the "fifth strategic domain" after the land, the sea, the air and the space, providing a new platform for geopolitical games. The developed countries dominate the formulation of cyberspace rules and hold a large portion of cyberspace strategic resources, leaving a huge gap of the global cyberspace development. This paper makes a social network analysis by using the Lorenz curve to quantitatively describe the pattern and the current allocation of the global cyberspace resources. It is shown that the physical infrastructures of the cyberspace, such as the submarine cables, the Internet data centers and the Internet exchange points, are mainly located in Europe and North America. The convergence of the submarine cables in specific areas has formed several major "points of the throat" for the Internet data traffic, namely, the Luzon Strait, the Malacca Strait, the Suez Canal, the Red Sea and the Mantel Strait. Egypt, the United States, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and Cote d'Ivoire play key roles in the entire network structure, carrying a large amount of Internet data traffic; in terms of virtual resources in the cyberspace, there is also a serious uneven distribution, with a small population in Europe and the United States sharing most of the network resources. China has come out of the backward situation in the field of IPv6, but there is still a large distance to go for the development in the future. This paper puts forward corresponding policy recommendations in terms of the construction of the cyberspace infrastructure such as the submarine cables and the data centers, and the virtual resources in the global cyberspace. Besides, this study emphasizes the needs to defend cyberspace sovereignty and national security, strengthen the research and application of new cybersecurity technologies, draw the geographical map of cyberspace, and improve the capability of national cybersecurity assurance.

Knowledge graph representation learning method system in the era of artificial intelligence

ZHANG Hui, YANG Weijie, LIU Wenwen, ZHANG Xun, DUAN Dagao, HAN Zhongming
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 94-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.011
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Abstract ( 128 )
In recent years, the knowledge graph representation learning has been used to represent the components of the knowledge graphs in a low-dimensional vector embedding, as a mainstream way to combine the artificial intelligence with the knowledge graphs. This paper reviews the mainstream knowledge graph representation learning methods without auxiliary information, mainly, the distance-based and the semantic matching-based methods, and the knowledge graph representation learning methods containing textual auxiliary information and category auxiliary information, along with the advantages and the disadvantages of various representation learning methods. It is found that the introduction of auxiliary information can effectively represent new entities and relationships in the knowledge graph, but the time and space costs are significantly increased, and thus the methods without auxiliary information are more easily applied in practical scenarios at this stage. Finally, we show how the knowledge graph embedding can be applied to downstream tasks such as the triad classification, the link prediction and the recommender systems. A collection of datasets and open source libraries for different tasks is compiled and, and a comprehensive outlook on promising research directions such as large-scale, dynamic knowledge graphs is given.

Public preference in science popularization and the influencing factors——A statistical analysis of multi-source data

REN Fujun, GAO Jie, XU Zheping, WU Hong, CHEN Xuejuan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 111-119. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.012
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Abstract ( 94 )
Based on the official website information, the annual statistics and the third-party website data related to China's 219 free access science and technology museums, combined with the targeted questionnaires, the natural language processing and visualization technologies, using the five-factor model of the science communication, this paper makes a multi-source data analysis on the current status of the popular science influence of the S&T museums in China and explores the public popular science preference and the influencing factors. The following conclusions are drawn:The public is more interested in the scientific knowledge closely related to everyday life, and prefers to get information via the new media science popularization, such as the WeChat, the Weibo and the official websites; the public is more concerned with the fundamental facilities such as the environment, the displaying content and the provided services. Females pay more attention to the S&T museums and would like to express their opinion than males; and the public shows stronger willingness to visit the S&T museums around the important policy releasing time. As a result, the policy is considered to be the direct influencing factor of the popular science of the free access S&T museums.
Scientific Comments

Chiral chemistry: Asymmetric organocatalysis: The 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

LI Guigen
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 120-129. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.013
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Abstract ( 146 )
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to two chemists, Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan for their contributions "for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis". This paper reviews the source, the innovation and the background of the Nobel prize work. The chiral chemistry, the chiral catalysts and the asymmetric organic catalysis and their control of chirality are explained, along with the categories of the organic catalysis and the catalysts. The important contributions of Chinese scientists in the field of the organic asymmetric catalysis are introduced, and the development, the research status and the future of this field are highlighted.
Science and Technology Humanities

Gilbert Newton Lewis, a great chemists, but not a Nobel laureate

SHEN Yulong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 130-136. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.014
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Abstract ( 128 )
Gilbert Newton Lewis is one of the great chemists of the 20th century. He is considered as the founder of the modern chemical thermodynamics according to his major contribution in developing the thermodynamic theories and applying them to real chemical systems, and his discovery of the covalent bond, and with that concept and that of the electron pairs, the modern theories of chemical bonding were developed. His concepts of acids and bases are another fundamental contribution to the chemistry. Lewis was nominated 41 times for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry without avail, as one of the many controversial inclusions and exclusions in the history of Nobel laureate selections. This paper reviews Lewis's life experiences and scientific achievements, especially, his scientific explorations.

Osborne Reynolds: An excellent practitioner of combining mechanics and engineering

DONG Xin, BAI Xin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (22): 137-144. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.015
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Abstract ( 136 )
Osborn Reynolds(1842-1912), a British Irish scientist of mechanics, made outstanding contributions to mechanics and engineering throughout his life. This paper reviews Osborne Reynolds's life, academic experience, and contributions to mechanics and engineering, and it is shown that many of his research results were inconspicuous at the time, but were, years later, found to be very important and provided an important basis in related fields.

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