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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 14
28 July 2021

Scientifc Comments

Foreword
Papers
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Exclusive: Innovation and development of the third generation semiconductor
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 7-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 9-9.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 1-2.
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Abstract ( 59 )
Think Tank

The reform of China's ecological compensation system with market-based instruments

XI Xiao, YUAN Guohua, JIA Libin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 10-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.001
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Abstract ( 78 )
China's financially dominated ecological compensation system is now facing great challenges due to the fund limitation. It is important, with the market-based instruments, to reconstruct China's ecological protection and compensation system for the continued advancement of the ecological conservation and the construction of the eco-civilization. This paper aims to clarify the boundaries and the associations of the ecological protection, the ecological restoration, and the ecological compensation. Based on the principle of "spoilers to make compensation, protectors to get benefits and beneficiaries to pay the cost", this paper proposes a basic ecological compensation system that compensates the ecological land occupied and damaged by the economic construction and rewards various actions of the ecological conservation with the goal of a net gain for the biodiversity. Optimizing the right-based compensation mechanism and improving the revenue-based compensation mechanism are the fundamental routines to establish a sustainable market-oriented, diversified ecological compensation system.
Exclusive: Innovation and development of the third generation semiconductor

Development and trend of the third generation semiconductor industry

WU Ling, ZHAO Lubing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 20-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.002
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Abstract ( 73 )
The third generation semiconductor is in the frontier of the global semiconductor technology research and is the focus of the new industry competition. This paper reviews the development of the third generation semiconductor, China's scientific and technological support policies for the third generation semiconductor industry, and the current risks and existing problems. The exploration and the practice of the third-generation strategic alliance for the technological innovation in the semiconductor industry are discussed, including promoting the integration of the industry-university-research innovation consortium with major national projects, promoting the construction of the national public platform and industrial innovation ecology, formulating the group standards and promoting the construction of the related testing platforms, promoting the integration and the development of large, medium and small enterprises through innovative and entrepreneurial services, and the international cooperation. In view of the current international situation and the opportunities and challenges faced by China's third-generation semiconductor industry, this paper puts forward five suggestions:Starting the national 2030 major project as soon as possible, aiming at the major needs of the country and exploring a new national system; consolidating the basic platforms such as the public R&D and services that support the industrial chain; accelerating the improvement of the industrial ecological environment; implementing the application demonstration projects and bringing into full play the leading role of the demand side in the industry; constructing the network chain of the science and technology capital, and realizing the pulling function of the national credit on the R&D chain, the industrial chain and the capital chain.

Recent progress of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

LI Jinmin, YAN Jianchang, GUO Yanan, REN Rui, CAI Tingsong, WANG Junxi
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 30-41. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.003
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Abstract ( 50 )
The III-nitride based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have tunable emission wavelengths covering a range from 210nm to 400nm, making them suited to be applied in many fields, such as industrial, environmental, medical and biochemical detection fields. Rapid great technical breakthroughs have been made to improve the performance of the AlGaN UV LEDs over the past few years. However, there is still much room for the improvement of the external quantum efficiency and the wall plug efficiency of the deep-UV LEDs due to the intrinsic properties of the Al-rich AlGaN materials. This paper reviews the recent development of the AlGaN UV LEDs, as well as the key challenges to the efficiency improvement, including the epitaxy quality, the doping efficiency, the quantum structure, the light extraction and the reliability, and the effective solutions. It is estimated that by the year 2025, the single-chip light output power of the deep-UV LED will exceed the watt level, the wall plug efficiency is expected to be increased to over 20%, and the lifetime will reach a level of 104 hours.

Third generation wide bandgap power semiconductors and their applications

CAI Wei, SUN Dongyang, ZHOU Minghao, GUO Qingbo, GAO Hanying
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 42-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.004
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Abstract ( 82 )
In recent years, the third generation wide bandgap(WBG) power semiconductors, represented by the silicon carbide and the gallium nitride, have developed rapidly, and have become the focus of the R & D and the industrial applications in the power electronics industry. It is very important for the sustainable development of the industrial innovation system to seize the strategic opportunity period of the third generation WBG power semiconductor, and to realize the independent and controllable development of the semiconductor materials, devices, packaging modules and systems. Based on the analysis of the important strategic significance of the third generation WBG power semiconductor, this paper reviews the development of its materials, device R & D and industry, as well as the application achievements of the silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) devices, and the key issues in the third generation WBG semiconductor industry. Based on the analysis of the current situation and the forward-looking prediction, the future development trend and the technology route of the third generation WBG semiconductor in China are analyzed. It is suggested that under the national policy, the industry association and the industry alliance should play roles as a bridge and a link to support all links of the industry chain, such as the substrate materials, the epitaxial materials, the device design and the manufacturing technology, so as to guide all links to realize the resource sharing, the strong alliance, and the mutual pull and promotion between the upstream and the downstream, so as to form an industry chain with a reasonable layout and a complete structure.

Progress in developing high-voltage SiC power devices

BAI Song, LI Shiyan, YANG Xiaolei, FEI Chenxi, LIU Ao, HUANG Runhua, YANG Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 56-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.005
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Abstract ( 55 )
The SiC power devices are replacing the silicon-based devices in more and more applications, and becoming a research focus. The SiC device technologies have matured in recent years, and the advantages in performance over the Si device are demonstrated in this paper. The development of the high-voltage SiC power devices and some of the latest progresses are discussed.

Research progress on reliability of 4H-SiC power Schottky diodes

ZHANG Yuming, YUAN Hao, TANG Xiaoyan, SONG Qingwen, HE Yanjing, LI Dongxun, BAI Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 63-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.006
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Abstract ( 48 )
As a wide band gap semiconductor device, the 4H-SiC power device has the advantages of high voltage, low conduction resistance and good heat dissipation due to its outstanding material features. In recent years, with the gradual commercialization of the devices, the reliability of the devices becomes a new research hotspot. This paper reviews the recent research progress of our research group on the reliability of the 4H-SiC power diodes. The degradation mechanism of the device performance is analyzed in terms of the high temperature storage and the high voltage anti bias property. According to the reliability of the avalanche, the 4H-SiC JBS diodes with the traditional FLRs and the trench FLRs terminal structure is designed and prepared. The results indicate that the trench FLRs can be used in the terminal scheme to effectively improve the capability of the device on the anti repeated avalanche.

Research progress of the third generation semiconductor radiation detector

LIANG Hongwei, LIAO Chuanwu, XIA Xiaochuan, LONG Ze, GENG Xinlei, NIU Mengchen, HAN Zhongyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 69-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.007
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Abstract ( 60 )
As representatives of the third generation semiconductor of the wide band gap, the gallium nitride, the silicon carbide and diamond with high breakdown electric field, high saturated electron rate, high heat conductivity and high displacement threshold, high temperature resistance, high radiation resistance, can be applied as the radiation detector in the space detection, the high energy particle physics, and other fields, with important potential applications. The properties of several third-generation semiconductors, the main preparation methods of the radiation detectors and the testing progress for different radiations are addressed emphatically, and the development trend of third-generation semiconductors in the radiation detection is also prospected. It is proposed that the emergence of the third generation semiconductor radiation detectors will promote the research of nuclear science, space exploration, particle and high energy physics, and play an important role in promoting the national core competitiveness.

Promote the domestication of the third-generation semiconductor equipment to embrace the dawn of semiconductors and consolidate the new infrastructure

WANG Zhiyue, GONG Xiaoliang, FU Binglei
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 83-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.008
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Abstract ( 57 )
The third-generation semiconductors, with the SiC and the GaN as the representatives, are widely used in the new infrastructure like the 5G base station and the EV charging point. The manufacturing process of the third-generation semiconductor requires high temperature, high energy and low damage, and the related equipment thus has to be modified. The requirements of the process and the related equipment for the third-generation semiconductor are presented. This paper also reviews the domestication of the third-generation semiconductor equipment and offer suggestions for the future, such as we should take the enterprise as the main body and make the collaborative innovation in production, teaching, research and application; focus on equipping the technology in common uses and cultivating the independent part supporting system; strengthen the cultivation of the innovative talents and enhance the potential of the industrial development.
Review

Development trends of human microbiome and some suggestions

SHI Huilin, SUN Xuehui, XU Li, XU Ping, WANG Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 92-99. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.009
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Abstract ( 41 )
In recent years, the advances in the new generation genomic sequencing and bioinformatics technologies have pushed forward the development of the human microbiome research. The relationships between the human microbiome and the whole life cycle health, the occurrence and the development of diseases and the function of the nutrition or the medicine have been further explored, which brings changes in the health and medical concepts. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the global human microbiome development trends, it is found that the human microbiome reference sequence analysis is still in progress, and its emphasis has shifted from the census of the composition and the distribution of the human microbiome to the analysis of the composition of the microbiome of specific populations. The analysis of the causal mechanism gradually becomes the focus of the research, meanwhile the health interventions based on the reconstruction of the human microbiome have ushered in new insights. A large number of basic researches were carried out in China on the human microbiome, and great achievements were made in specific applications, such as the fecal bacteria transplantation. However, some problems remain to be solved, such as the lack of long-term tracking and analysis of large-scale population samples, the lack of systematic research work, the insufficient independent innovation capabilities of the high-value reconstruction products, as well as some regulatory loopholes in the product development. On this basis, some feasible policy recommendations are put forward for the future development of the human microbiome in China.

Research status and development trend of imitated vegetation hyperspectral camouflage material technology

ZU Mei, YAN Feng, CHENG Haifeng, LIU Dongqing, CHEN Chen, LI Mingyang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 100-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.010
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Abstract ( 57 )
In recent years, the hyperspectral imaging technology sees a rapid development and is widely applied in the military field, with great opportunities for military reconnaissance and unprecedented challenges for military camouflage. This paper analyzes a specular like detection technology for disguising the threat of the stealth technology and the difficulties in the traditional hyperspectral camouflage materials and technology. The researches of the hyperspectral camouflage materials and technologies for simulating the vegetation background are reviewed, focusing on four material systems:The plant camouflage technology, the biomimetic camouflage based on inorganic pigments, the biomimetic camouflage based on the chlorophyll and the "ecological camouflage" based on living organisms. The shortcomings of the existing hyperspectral camouflage materials and techniques in the biomimetic camouflage technology are analyzed. It is shown that the bionic materials cannot accurately simulate the characteristic absorption peak of the green vegetation, the stability and the durability of the biomimetic materials are poor, and the overall thickness of the materials is large, which is difficult to realize in the practical large-scale application. On this basis, a camouflage strategy is put forward to use the "ecological camouflage" based on living organisms. It is proposed that the future development direction and the trend of the hyperspectral camouflage materials and technology are to improve the "bionic camouflage" technology and optimize the "ecological camouflage" technology.
Papers

Brief review of focuses and trends of studies of science, technology, and society (STS)——Highlights of 4S annual meetings 2016-2020 based on qualitative data analysis

LIU Di, LI Zheng, REN Fujun, LI Zhengfeng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 107-118. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.011
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Abstract ( 62 )
The Society of Social Studies of Science (4S) is well known as the largest academic group of studies of Science Technology and Society (STS) in the world. Its annual academic conferences, the 4S meetings, have attracted many university scholars, institute researchers, business people, and government policy makers to communicate global hot topics and trends in the field of STS. Therefore, the research focuses of STS are considered to be reflected in the annual meetings of 4S. Based on the literature review of the STS and the 4S meeting studies in China, this paper discusses the theme changes of the 4S meetings. From the reports and experiences of the 4S meeting attendees from the National Academy of Innovation Strategy (NAIS), an affiliation institution of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), this paper makes a comprehensive review of the 2016-2020 4S annual meetings. Two data sources are highly valued in this study, the attendees' reports, and the programme and schedule documents of the 4S meetings with hundreds of speech abstracts presented in the panels of the 4S meetings. The themes, the panel topics and the speech abstracts in the last 5 years' programme lists are discussed by using Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA), which is a mixed method used to conduct cross analyses of the text contents efficiently. The conclusions about the STS focuses and trends are summarized as follows:the data-based researches on knowledge, innovation, and public policy could be the main directions of the current STS research, as shown in the high frequency word statistical analysis; the public policies and the historical references for specific issues in applied science, technology and engineering fields, as a trend of the STS development, in the subject occurrence chart. The paper also verifies the STS trends of the global development and the topic diffusion, and provides some constructive ideas about the STS studies in China and the participation suggestion of the 4S meetings in the discussion part, which could be a reference for experts in the STS.

Seeking “Taleb Surpass”: Normalization of infection prevention and control of COVID-19 and sustainable growth of technology companies——Empirical evidence from 1907 high technology enterprises in Nanjing

LUO Lihua, GAO Yong, ZHENG Qian, YANG Yanmei
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 119-128. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.012
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Abstract ( 36 )
To achieve the sustainable and high-quality development in the post-epidemic era, it is an important issue for science and technology enterprises to maintain the growth resilience. This paper selects 1907 high-tech enterprises in Nanjing, and in multiple perspectives (e. g., the impact extent, the realistic dilemmas, the policy demands of the normalization of the infection prevention, and the control of COVID-19 in science and technology enterprises) analyzes the actual and potential impacts of the PHEIC. Survey results show that (1) 52.44% science and technology enterprises are deeply affected by the crisis, with the declining revenue as the major challenge and the adverse impact on the new product development as the main barrier for the innovation. (2) In terms of operation, the development of science and technology enterprises is mainly limited by the recruitment of talents, which also leads to the high financial risk. In terms of research and development, the dilemmas appear due to the difficulty in the talent recruitment, the lack of self-help measures in the digitalization and the intelligent transformation, and the high costs of marketing innovative products. (3) There also exists a buffer period for the government's support policies to be fully implemented, which makes the policy demands of the science and technology enterprises unsatisfied. 91.14% of enterprises expect an increase in R&D subsidies. We propose that in the process of the normalization of the epidemic prevention and control, the ways of cultivating and attracting talents for technology enterprises should be updated, and the cooperation of industry, university and research institute should be strengthened. Correspondingly, it is significant to build a dynamic monitoring and technology risk early warning system in the high-tech field f the technology security. Meanwhile, in the reform of the science and technology systems and mechanisms, it is necessary to speed up the construction of the digital government and the scientific and technological innovation environment to promote the science and technology innovation governance system and to modernize the governance capacity.

The functions and the significance of online games in COVID-19 prevention and control: An empirical analysis of online interactive data during the epidemic period

QIAN Xuesheng, HU Anan, DAI Weihui, LING Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 129-143. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.013
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Abstract ( 63 )
Based on the parallel system theory and the CPP multi-space intelligent analysis theory, this paper discusses the relationship among the network virtual space,the real physical space and the social-psychological space, to find a way to build a big data analysis framework for the epidemic prevention and control, by using the mass real-time interaction data to carry out an empirical analysis from three aspects:the prediction of COVID-19, the feed back of the work resumption, and the influences on the public awareness of COVID-19. It is found that the interactive data of the online games can be used to predict the outbreak and the evolution of the epidemics to a certain extent, to accurately restore the status of work resumption, and to effectively improve the public awareness of the epidemics. As an important analysis tool, the online game interactive data can effectively fill the "blind area" and break the limitations of the traditional network big data tools in the epidemic prevention and control, enrich the epidemic prevention and control response mechanism, and play a positive role in building a more comprehensive social management system.

Construction of high-density genetic linkage map of maize based on SlAF-seq and QTL mapping of plant architecture traits

XUE Chunlei, WU Hui, LU Xiaoping, HAN Pingan, SUN Fengcheng, ZHANG Laihou
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 144-154. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.014
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Abstract ( 58 )
The plant architecture directly determines the biological yield, the planting density and the grain yield. The genetic mechanisms of the plant architecture related traits are analyzed in this paper by using the high-density genetic linkage map of the maize. This map is of great significance for breeding new maize varieties of ideal plant type. To develop high-throughput SNP markers for the high quality map from Chang 7-2×PHB1M, and the map QTL of the plant type related traits, 2 parents and 138 individuals of their F2:3 population are detected by the SLAF-seq technology. The results are used to construct a highdensity genetic map with a total distance of 1354.81 cM, an average distance of 0.32 cM between markers, and with 4220 SLAF (7876 SNPS) as markers. With the densities of E1 and E2, QTL is mapped for the plant height, the ear height, the leaf count, the internode count and the average internode length. A total of 10 QTLs are detected, and the PVE of 7 QTLs exceeds 10%. The leaf count, the ear height and the internode number are the major QTLs and the ADD is negative. The decreasing effect alleles of the leaf count and the internode count are from PHB1M, and the ear height is from Chang 7-2. The leaf count and the internode count are located on the chromosome 8 at both densities, showing that they have a common genetic mechanism. There are a total of 61 SLAF markers associated with the QTL, among which SLFA7305498 and SLFA6717271 are the common markers of qLC- 2-LG8 and qIC-2-LG8. This study provides a support for the marker-assisted selection of the plant architecture traits.
Scientifc Comments

Review and prospect of Italy-China space science and technology cooperation——From the gunpowder “rocket” all the way to satellites

Laura Baldis, BAI Qingjiang, FAN Quanlin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 155-165. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.015
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Abstract ( 50 )
Italy is one of the most important aerospace powers in the world, as well as an important member state of the European Space Agency, with a long tradition of the cultural, scientific, and technological exchanges with China and with a significant contribution to numerous breakthrough missions in the history of the space exploration. This paper reviews the historical development of the space science and technology in Italy, focusing on several main highlights, such as the import of the gunpowder from China in the 14th century, which initiated the technical development of Italy's very first rockets. Besides, the Italy-China cooperation is reviewed in the manned spaceflight, the earthquake electromagnetic monitoring in space, the space science satellites, and the numerous other fruitful results. It is concluded that the past and present cooperation between Italy and China promotes the progress of human civilization, including the contributions made by Italian missionaries to the development of natural and social sciences in China. Under the momentum of the Belt and Road initiative, Italy and China can cooperate to make even greater contributions to the human civilization and to the exploration of the mysteries of the vast universe.
Science and Technology Humanities

The function of scientific imagination in technological innovation as seen from Hedy Lamarr's Invention of frequency hopping technology

YANG Kexin, LI Bin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (14): 166-172. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.14.016
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Abstract ( 58 )
The frequency-hopping technology was invented by Hedy Lamarr, based on the principle of the auto-playing piano, which enables the transmission of signals from both the receiver and the sender to jump synchronously and separately on a set of pre-specified frequencies according to the sequence specified in the coding sequence, thus spreading the spectrum and realizing the communication. From the perspective of the creative thinking, Hedy Lamarr's technological innovation can be described in four steps:the contact spread spectrum, the inspiration source, the principle design, and the principle application. It is suggested that the scientific imagination plays a fundamental and key role in the Hedy Lamarr's innovation. The scientific imagination can be regarded as an illogical manifestation of the creative thinking, which not only provides new ideas for the "bottleneck" problem of the technological innovation, but also provides new solutions for the "problem-solving" activity of the technological innovation.

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