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   Science & Technology Review
2022, Vol.40, No. 5
13 March 2022

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Special to S&T Review
Suggestions
Exclusive: Corrosion and protection technology of aviation materials
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Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 60 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 116 )
Special to S&T Review

NASA's probe first enters solar atmosphere——A review of hot topics of space science in 2021

WANG Chi, YANG Fan, HAN Lin, WANG Haiming, FAN Weiwei, ZHANG Feng
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 6-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.001
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Abstract ( 87 )
This paper reviews the important research progress, major strategic adjustments of the US, Europe, Russia, China, and other regional organizations, and newly lunched and selected space science missions in 2021. The contents include Parker Solar Probe flew through the corona for the first time, InSight lander revealed the interior structure of Mars, spacecraft of the UAE, China, and US gathered on Mars, scientific researches of ISS attracted continuous attentions, US released new development roadmap for next decade of astronomy and astrophysics, ESA chose future large-class scientific mission themes for 2035-2050, China and Russia revealed roadmap for international moon base, JWST was successfully launched, China successfully launched solar exploration science and technology test satellite "Xihe" and sustainable development satellite SDGSAT-1, and NASA and ESA approved new missions to study Venus.
Suggestions

On the roles of world scientific and technological societies in national innovation system and the enlightenment

YANG Shujuan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 22-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.002
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Abstract ( 47 )
This paper analyzes the unique role of scientific and technological societies in building the national innovation system in terms of social mechanism and constituent element. It sorts out the practical experiences of scientific and technological societies of the United States, Japan and Germany, all the world's major developed countries, in serving national scientific and technological innovation. It studies the important role of science and technology society in assisting basic application research, promoting the combination of industries, universities and researches, and accelerating the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. Then it summarizes the common laws by which scientific and technological societies serve national innovation development strategies with professional leadership, participate in the formulation of global scientific and technological innovation rules with professional influence, and support national scientific and technological innovation activities with professional organizational strength. Keywords scientific and technologi
Exclusive: Corrosion and protection technology of aviation materials

Preparation and properties of self propagating anti-corrosion and wear-resistant coating on inner wall of equipment copper pipe

ZHANG Huanhuan, LIU Wenchao, TIAN Haoliang, WEI Shicheng, LIANG Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 28-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.003
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Abstract ( 46 )
A corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant coating is prepared on the inner wall of red copper pipe by centrifugal self propagating melting technology. The morphology of functionally gradient coating on ceramic lining is analyzed by means of SEM, hardness test and electrochemical test, and the hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the ceramic coating are studied. The results show that the functionally gradient coating is composed of a ceramic lining layer, a metal transition layer and a copper matrix layer. The hardness of the coating is significantly improved and has good resistance to dry wet alternating salt spray corrosion. The wear resistance of the ceramic lining is twice that of the copper matrix.

Preparation of graphene-doped epoxy composite coatings and their anti-corrosion properties

TIAN Yong, GUAN Zhenwei, LI Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 34-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.004
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Abstract ( 63 )
Through simple chemical reactions, 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and 3-glycidyl ether oxypropyl trimethoxysilane have been successfully grafted onto graphene oxide to prepare composite of a sandwich structure. The two surface modifiers make it easier for the graphene oxide to form chemical bonds with epoxy resin/polyamine. Through electron microscope and visibleinfrared full-band transmittance tests it is found that the graphene oxide treated by the modifier can evenly disperse in the resin system. Compared with the pure epoxy amine resin coating, the water vapor transmittance of the GO-APTES/Resin coating is reduced by 30%. A "labyrinth effect" is formed, which is a good barrier against water vapor. Moreover, the anti-corrosion mechanism of the composite coating is studied by Bode and Nyquist spectra. The shielding of the coating against the corrosive medium is enhanced after adding modified graphene oxide, and the ability of the corrosive medium to penetrate the coating is reduced. Therefore, the coating is better attached to the metal and the area of electrochemical corrosion is smaller, having a better corrosion protection ability. Neutral salt spray test shows that the coating surface will not fall off or present blister after 7000 hours.

Preparation and performance of cold-coating zinc anticorrosive paint containing graphene

FANG Bing, YANG Rui, YANG Liang, JIANG Guojie
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 44-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.005
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Abstract ( 44 )
Well dispersed graphene slurry is prepared with silane-functionalized graphene oxide (f-GO). This graphene slurry is then combined with solved resin and pre-dispersed zinc slurry to prepare the cold-coating zinc paint. The best addition dosage of graphene oxide in the coating is determined by salt spray fog, contact angle test and electrochemical measurements. Properties of the cold-coating zinc paint containing f-GO are tested, and the time of resisting salt spray in the test is above 2500 h, which is about twice the time of the hot-dip galvanizing counterpart with the same thickness.

Effect of alloying elements on basic properties of SHS associated metal coatings

FANG Bing, CHEN Haohui, WANG Shouze, TIAN Haoliang, ZHANG Shu'ai
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 52-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.006
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Abstract ( 41 )
The effect of alloying elements on the basic properties of associated metal coatings is investigated. A seamless steel pipe with diameter of Ф78 mm*8 mm*550 mm is selected, and a long groove of 150 mm*10 mm*4 mm is set in advance at 200~350 mm from the inner wall of the pipe to the end of the pipe, and the associated metal coatings with different contents of alloying elements are prepared by self propagating high temperature synthesis technology. The effects of different alloy elements on pores, cracks, hardness and corrosion resistance of associated metal coatings are then investigated by Vickers hardness measurement, electron microscopic scanning and acid immersion corrosion test. After adding Nb and Cr elements, the hardness of the associated metal layer increases, pores and cracks are obviously reduced, and microstructure tends to be homogenized. The corrosion resistance of the associated metal layer is directly proportional to the amounts of Cr and Nb, but the amount of ZrO2 has minor effect. The weight loss of associated metal coating with the best corrosion resistance is only 0.271 g, the weight loss rate is 2.71%, and the weight loss rate is only 21.22% of the pure iron layer. Addition of Nb and Cr can effectively improve the basic properties of the associated metal coating, while Zr has minor effect on the properties of the coating.

Research progress on pitting mechanism for electrochemical machining of titanium alloys

LI Haiyang, ZHAN Zhongwei, LUO Chen, SUN Zhihua
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 63-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.007
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Abstract ( 59 )
Electrochemical machining is usually used to shape titanium and titanium alloys because it has high efficiency and great capability to manufacture thin-walled and special-shaped components. However,the passive film and formation of pitting corrosion on both workpiece surface and the non-machined part are the main drawbacks when the machining uses low working electric currents. Therefore, research on pits initiation, pits growth and pits control during electrochemical machining is in great need. This paper reviews the research progress on cause, prevention, and control of pitting corrosion of titanium alloys during electrochemical machining. Meanwhile, the advantages and weaknesses of each strategy are well illustrated. The research trend in pitting corrosion for electrochemical machining of titanium is also presented.

Effect of shipborne environment on corrosion resistance and fatigue property of 2124 aluminum alloy

ZHAN Zhongwei, SUN Zhihua, GE Yulin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 69-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.008
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Abstract ( 41 )
Shipborne environment is the main service circumstance of aircraft equipment in the future, which combines features of high temperature, high relative humidity, high salinity from marine environment and acidic gas from shipborne equipment. Aluminum alloys suffer severe corrosion in such an environment. In this study acidic salt spray test is used to simulate the shipborne environment and applied to 2124 aluminum alloys with three different anodic oxidations, i.e., chromic acid anodization (CAA), boric-sulfuric acid anodization (BSAA) and malic-sulfuric acid anodization (MSAA). The corrosion resistance and fatigue property of anodized 2124 alloys are evaluated at different cycles of the test. The structure evolution of anode oxide films is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The axial fatigue life of anodized samples is measured after different cycles of the test. The fracture morphology is also studied. The results suggests that anodic oxidation can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of 2124 alloy. BSAA and MSAA samples exhibit better corrosion resistance than CAA samples. Corrosion signs of the substrate of CAA appear after 4 cycles of the test, while after 6 cycles for BSAA and MSAA. The fatigue life generally declines with salt spray test cycles, which is consistent with the corrosion resistance performance. However, MSAA has the highest residual fatigue life.

Research progress on sand particle erosion-A corrosion alternative laboratory test method

LUO Chen, LI Haiyang, CUI Yongjing, SUN Zhihua, TANG Zhihui
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 78-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.009
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Abstract ( 49 )
Compressor blades and fan blades of aero engine encounter the blasting load from sand particles during service, as well as the influence of temperature, humidity and air pollution. In this paper, test methods related to sand environment and sand particle erosion are investigated, with emphasis on the common and difference of these methods using high speed sand stream to impact on samples. Gas jet test is chosen as a proper method to carry out erosion test and research for compressor blade and fan blade. An erosion method is designed according to the sand composition and particle size listed in GJB 241A-2010, GJB 242A- 2018. Sand feeding rate and testing time are controlled so as to meet the sand mass loads of compressor blade and fan blade in real service. The sand mass load is equivalent to the sand blast environment for aero engine in 1 year. Sand particle erosion testing and GJB 150.11A-2009 salt fog testing are carried out alternatively so that the testing scheme is closer to real service condition. Such methods may provide a technique foundation for aero engine compressor blade and fan blade to establish damage evolution rules and models considering the effect of corrosion environment and erosion load.

Comparative study on aging behaviors of fluorane and nitrile butadiene rubbers in aviation hydraulic oil

WANG Zhanbin, LI Chunguang, XIAO Shuhua
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 88-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.010
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Abstract ( 45 )
Fluoroether rubber is usually used as a sealing material in high temperature oil environment. In this study, FM-1D fluoroether rubber is the research object and is aged at high temperature in No. 15 aviation hydraulic oil. Its tensile strength, elongation at break, compression permanent deformation, mass change, volume change, surface and fracture morphology after aging are studied and compared with those of nitrile butadiene rubber. The results are as follows. Fluoroether rubber has excellent aging resistance to aviation hydraulic oil medium. Its tensile strength, elongation at break and compression permanent deformation may keep stable after aging in the hydraulic oil medium below 170℃. Its heat resistance basically remains unchanged. Changes of mass and volume of fluoroether rubber in hydraulic oil increase with increase of temperature and keep stable over time. It is better than the nitrile butadiene rubber compound in terms of mass, volume changes and stability. In the aging process of fluoroether rubber, degradation of compression permanent deformation basically conforms to the exponential decay law, but degradation of tensile property obviously does not conform to that law, and model Arrhenius (P=Ae-Kt) equation does not apply to life prediction either.
Reviews

Research progress of spray cooling technology for avionics

QI Wenliang, WANG Wanren, YANG Yuwei, LI Hao, LIU Tingting
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 95-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.011
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Abstract ( 76 )
With the rapid development of semiconductor technology, conventional cooling methods are difficult to meet the stricter heat dissipation requirements of electronic equipment. The spray cooling technology has become an effective method to solve the heat dissipation of highly integrated avionics due to its high heat transfer efficiency, uniform temperature at the heat exchange surface and less usage of working medium. We introduce the working principle of spray cooling in this paper. The influence factors of spray cooling technology are analyzed in terms of spray characteristics, coolant characteristics and surface characteristics We also summarize the research status of spray cooling technology in avionics. Finally, we point out the challenges for spray cooling technology under different gravities and accelerated vibration environment, and predict the future development trend of this technology for avionics.

Review of high plateau aviation human factors engineering theory

CHEN Nongtian, NING Weifeng, MAN Yongzheng, LI Junhui
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 105-114. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.012
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Abstract ( 57 )
The safety of high plateau aviation human factors engineering is a key factor affecting safe operation of high plateau aviation and has become a research hotspot of aviation human factors engineering interdisciplinary study. In this article, starting from the current research status of high plateau human factors engineering theory at home and abroad, we analyze the characteristics of high plateau aviation operation and key risks. Then combined with the SHELL model of aviation human factors engineering theory, we summarize high plateau aviation human factors, high plateau aircraft airworthiness safety, high plateau aviation operating environment and high plateau aviation operating regulations and standards from the four levels:human, hardware, environment and software. Finally, we point out that high plateau aviation human factors engineering research should focus on high plateau aviation human factors physiology, high plateau aviation human-computer interaction airworthiness verification, high plateau aviation human factors engineering regulations and standards, as well as high plateau aviation human factors engineering emergency mechanisms.

Research progress of epoxy resin based materials for radiation shielding

ZHANG Yahui, ZHANG Youwei, DU Zhonghe, CAO Ke, LU Yongjun, WANG Liancai, LIU Pinggui, ZHANG Xiuqin, MA Huiling
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 115-121. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.013
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Abstract ( 65 )
In this paper, the characteristics and radiation shielding mechanisms of γ ray and neutron are introduced. The latest research development of epoxy resin based composites for γ ray shielding, neutron shielding and γ -ray/neutron shielding are then reviewed. Finally, the future development and challenges of epoxy resin based radiation shielding composites are prospected.
Papers

Development status quo and applications of focused ultrasound in the treatment of brain diseases

ZHANG Yanqiu, JIAN Xiqi
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 122-131. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.014
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Abstract ( 48 )
The incidence of neurological diseases is increasing year by year, which seriously threatens human health and life. Ultrasound has been gradually applied to the treatment of brain diseases due to its non-invasiveness, high spatial resolution, mutiple stimulation targets, good MR compatibility effect and less adverse reactions. At present, the treatment of ultrasound neurological diseases mainly includes high-intensity focused ultrasound thermally lethal disease tissue, mechanical vibration to dissolve thrombus and low-intensity focused ultrasound stimulation therapy. This article briefly describes the development status of high-intensity focused ultrasound and its clinical applications in brain tumors, neuropathic pain, tremor, Parkinson, obsessivecompulsive disorder and stroke, as well as the development status of low-intensity focused ultrasound and its clinical applications in depression and epilepsy. Transcranial focused ultrasound can be used to treat neurological diseases noninvasively, but the impact of the skull needs to be fully considered.

Analysis of US military Sidearm system characteristics and its application prospect

HONG Da, ZHENG Zhenshan, ZHOU Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 132-137. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.015
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Abstract ( 57 )
In this paper, the composition of the lifting arm, the slide rail and the sliding retractor of the side arm system, the principle of UAV launching and recovering, the main characteristics of design and use are analyzed, as well as the key technologies such as common rail integrated design, energy and overload control, approach guidance and control, automatic decision-making, compares with other UAV launch and recovery methods. The application prospect in ships without aircraft carrier is analyzed. It is considered that it can improve the mission ability of remote observation and combat of non aircraft carrier formation.

Environmental spectrum life prediction of Q345 carbon steel coating electrical cabinet of Beijing-Guangzhou high speed railway

LI Yonghong, SHAO Xiaofeng, HU Tianqi
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (5): 138-148. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.05.016
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Abstract ( 44 )
Accelerated corrosion and aging test of the electrical cabinet Q345 carbon coating steel material of the BeijingGuangzhou line EMUs was carried out in the relevant service environment, and the failure behavior of the coating system during the test was studied. Referring to the relevant national standards to test the basic performance of the complete coating, this test adopted the electrochemical impedance test and the corrosion analysis method under the film to study the damage of the coating. Electron microscope and energy spectrum analysis were used to analyze the corrosion morphology and composition of Q345 carbon steel substrate. The results showed that the basic performance indicators such as adhesion, gloss and hardness of the complete coating did not change significantly during the five test periods, indicating the coating's very good protective performance on the substrate. Contrarily, the Q345 carbon steel's corrosion rate is very fast in the same environment, and the protective effect of the rust layer on the substrate is very weak. During the cross-cutting test, both the corrosion expansion area under the film and the coating lift height increased significantly at the beginning of the fourth period. Therefore, the coating of the electrical cabinet of the Beijing-Guangzhou line EMUs is necessary and critical to the protection of Q345 carbon steel during its service period. When the coating is damaged, it must be repaired in time to prevent the damaged area and depth from further increasing.

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